Saturday, January 31, 2004

English ships in the First Anglo-Dutch War I just completed a first draft of a comprehensive ship list for the English, in the First Anglo-Dutch War. The main purpose was to provide an overview, showing which battles a ship participated in. The list has ship name, nominal guns and captains. Ships are marked, where they were hired merchantmen or prizes. Most armaments are those which were typical for the ship. Where that was unknown, the armament was estimated, based on the burden, where known. The battle information is drawn from R.C. Anderson's article in the 1938 Mariner's Mirror.
Witte de With's Squadron, Lying in the Texel in 1653 There are some Van de Velde drawings, from 1653, that show Witte de With's squadron, lying in the Texel, prior to the Battle of Scheveningen. At least one picture shows the new Huis te Swieten, which Witte de With was fitting out. Neither the Huis te Swieten (60 guns) and Michiel De Ruyter's new ship, the Huis te Kruiningen (54 guns), were ready in time for the Battle of Scheveningen. I have two questions: 1) What ships were in Witte de With's squadron in July 1653. 2) Can the ships in the drawings be identified?
The Battle of Portland (28 February 1653-2 March 1653 The order-of-battle for the Battle of Portland is progressing. My first cut for the Dutch is complete, and I am working on the English. I am having to rely on Dr. Ballhausen more than I would like. I was thinking about what a hard-fought battle Portland was. Michiel De Ruyter's flagship, the Witte Lam, had to be towed in after the battle. On the first day, he had taken the English hired merchantman, the Prosperous, 42 guns. In the process, his ship was severely damaged. On the second day, Jan Duym had to take the Witte Lam in tow. Captain Duym's ship was the Zon, 28 guns (a Noorder-Kwartier ship). Jan Thyssen (or Tijssen) commanded the Witte Lam (a Vlissingen Directors ship). He was at the Battle off Dover (29 May 1652), and had gone into the Downs, before the arrival of the entire fleet, to inform the English of their need to seek shelter in English waters. The Hollandsche Mercurius published a list, in the 1652 volume, that shows the Witte Lam armed with 32 guns and having a crew of 110 men. From the book Salt in Their Blood, the chapter on Michiel de Ruyter says that at the Battle of Portland, the ship carried 40 guns and had a crew of 145 men (as I recall). The Witte Lam must have been a substantial ship to allow for a substantially larger armament and crew, although in early 1652, many ships were under-armed.

Thursday, January 29, 2004

The Battle of Portland (28 February 1653-2 March 1653): A Question One question, among many, that I have regarding the Battle of Portland, was which ship Sipke Fockes commanded. From the beginning of the First Anglo-Dutch War, he had commanded the Amsterdam Directors ship, the Sint Maria, 28 guns (The First Dutch War erroneously says that he armament was 37 guns, quoting the English). The Hollandsche Mercurius, for 1653, reports that the ship that was captured at Portland was the Groote Sint Lucas. That is repeated in the 1654 book, Onstelde Zee, by Jodocus Hondius. The Groote Sint Lucas, in the Hollandsche Mercurius is part of a list of ships captured at Portland, and taken into Portsmouth. The list shows her with 28 guns, the same as the Sint Maria. Sipke Fockes was killed in the battle. I have long assumed that the Groote Sint Lucas was a different ship. About 8 months ago, I received copies of manuscripts that showed Sipke Fockes still commanded the Sint Maria in January 1653. That caused me to believe that they were the same ship, and the Groote Sint Lucas was an error. Then, I received a document that showed that the Sint Maria was being repaired after Portland. That meant she had not been captured. That gave new credance to the existence of a Groote Sint Lucas.

Dutch Captains-continued

Daniel Elsevier

Daniel Elsevier lived from about 1630 to 26 February 1688. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a lieutenant in 1665, captain in 1672, Schout-bij-Nacht in 1683, and Vice-Admiral in 1686.

In 1666, he took the captured Sir George Ayscue to the Netherlands after the Four Days Battle. In 1672, he commanded the Stavoren at Solebay, where he was caught, captured, and exchanged. In 1673, he commanded the Zeelandia at Schooneveld and Kijkduin. In 1676, he commanded the Ackerboom (60 guns) in the Sound under Philips van Almonde. He fought at Bornholm and Oland against Sweden. In 1677, he was a pallbearer at De Ruyter's funeral. In 1678, he served under Evertsen in the relief fleet to Spain. In 1683, he commanded the Moriaanshoofd in the expedition of Schepers to Gothenburg and saved the Hollandia on the return voyage. This well have been the occasion when a storm sank many Dutch warships.

Hendrick Bruynsvelt

Hendrick Bruysvelt served the Friesland Admiralty. Mollema didn't know his birthdate, but he died in 1675. He was a captain in 1658 and Schout-bij-Nacht in 1665. From 1630 to 1644, he served in Brazil. In 1658 and 1659, he commanded the Oostergo (54 guns) under De Ruyter in the Sound. In 1665, as Schout-bij-Nacht, his flagship was the Albertina (50 guns) at the Battle of Lowestoft. In 1666, he served with distinction at the Four Days Battle, where he captured two English ships. In 1667, he commanded the Prins Hendrick Casimir (72 guns) in the raid on Chatham. In 1672 to 1673, he commanded his own ship at Solebay and Kijkduin. In 1674, he served under Cornelis Tromp on the French coast.

This information is drawn from J.C. Mollema.

Wednesday, January 28, 2004

Zeeland Yachts in the First Anglo-Dutch War I have been researching what I believe were three-masted yachts, from Zeeland. The yacht most usually mentioned is the Gloeyenden Oven. The list from about June 1652 lists it as having 14 guns and a crew of 56. The captain was Adriaan den Oven. While that is the usual ship name used, about November of 1652, around the time of the voyage that culminated in the Battle of Dungeness, Captain de Oven's yacht was mentioned as being the Jager. This is mentioned in Dr. Elias book, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen. There is a yacht mentioned in 1654, called the Zeeuwsche Jaeger, so that can't be the same ship. If Jager was another name for the Gloeyenden Oven, that yacht was not the same as the Zeeuwsche Jaeger. The reason is that the Gloeyenden Oven was used as a fireship at the Battle of the Gabbard, where she was captured by the English. Another Zeeland yacht was mentioned, as well, later in the year. The captain was Pieter Gorcum. Witte de With sent him to meet Michiel de Ruyter, before he joined the main fleet. My tentative theory is that his ship was the Dordrecht, of 17guns, that is listed in the "Staet van Oorlog te Water voor den jaere 1654".

Tuesday, January 27, 2004

Open Directory Project I found out this morning that I was accepted as editor for the Anglo-Dutch Wars category in the Open Directory Project. I have added some new sites to the category, but it will take some time for them to actually become available. The link is: Open Directory Project: Anglo-Dutch Wars

Monday, January 26, 2004

More English and Dutch Captains

Richard Beach

Richard Beach was a Royalist privateer during the First Anglo-Dutch War. Robert Blake and William Penn reported, in a letter dated 28 March 1654 (new style) that Richard Beach, and his ship, the Royal James had been captured.

The Royal James was renamed Sorlings. Dimensions:

Length of keel  86 feet
Beam outside of planking  26 feet-6 inches
Depth of hold  11 feet-4 inches
Burden 321 tons
32 guns

The Sorlings was wrecked in 1667. In 1666, the Sorlings carried 34 guns with 22-demi-culverins (9pdr) and 12-sakers (5-1/4pdr).

This is drawn from the First Dutch War, Vol.VI and from Frank Fox's book, Great Ships: the battlefleet of King Charles II.

This rest of this is from Mollema's Honor Roll.

Adriaan de Haze

Adriaan de Haze served the Admiralty of Zeeland. We don't know, from Mollema, when he was born. He died on 23 March 1672. He was a captain in 1652. Despite that, he doesn't appear in the books, The First Dutch War and Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen. In 1652, he distinguished himself at the Battle off Dover. In 1665, he fought at Lowestoft. In 1666, he commanded the Veere (or Kampveere) (46 guns) at both the Four Days Battle and the St. James Day Battle. In 1672, he was killed while commanding the Vlissingen (50 guns) when he was protecting the Smyrna convoy.

Jan van Amstel

Jan van Amstel lived from about 1620 to 29 September 1669. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1658, he served under Abraham van der Hulst in the Hilversum (52guns) in De Ruyter's squadron in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1659, he commanded the Provinciën (40 guns) under De Ruyter in the Sound, at Funen and Nyborg. In 1664, he was a convoy commander in the Mediterreanean Sea. In 1665, he commanded the Vrijheid (58 guns) at Lowestoft. In 1666, he distinguished himself at the Four Days Battle and the St. James Day Battle. In 1667, he commanded the Tijdverdrijf (60 guns) in the raid on Chatham.

Enno Doedes Star

Enno Doedes Star lived from 1631 to 1707. He served the Admiralties of Friesland and Amsterdam. He was an Extraordinary Captain in 1658. A captain in 1665 and Vice-Admiral in 1666. From 1660 to 1661, he protected against Portuguese privateers in the Channel. In 1661 and 1664, he commanded supply ships for De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1664 to 1665, he served under De Ruyter off the coast of Guinea and in the West Indies. In 1666, he commanded the Gouden Leeuw (60 guns) in both the Four Days Battle and the St. James Day Battle. In 1667, he distinguished himself in the raid on Chatham and blockaded Harwich. In 1672, he commanded the Groningen at Solebay. In 1673, he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin). In 1678, he served under Evertsen in the relief fleet near Spain. In 1691, he commanded a squadron in the combined English-Dutch fleet, the end of his service.

AOSII Privateers Bounty First Anglo-Dutch War Scenarios I just finished my work scenarios for the First Anglo-Dutch War major battles in 1652. There are now five available (dates are new style): 1. The Battle off Dover (29 May 1652) 2. The Battle of Plymouth (26 August 1652) 3. The Battle of Monte Cristo (6 September 1652) 4. The Battle of the Kentish Knock (8 October 1652) 5. The Battle of Dungeness (10 December 1652) These dates are what the Dutch use, not the English "Old Style" dates. The significant thing about these is that the Dutch ships are quite accurate in size and armament. For each ship, in the long name, I include captains' names, for ease in configuration control, given that there are many Dutch ships of the same name. In both the display name and the long name, I include an indication of the "admiralty" (which could include the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC and the Hoorn Directors, for example). Anyone who might be interested in getting a zip file with the scenarios should send me e-mail.

Sunday, January 25, 2004

A concise critique of Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp I am not so familiar with Lt-Admiral Tromp's performance prior to the First Anglo-Dutch War, so I wll confine my remarks to the latter period. I find a great deal to criticize about his leadership in the war. My theory is that Tromp started the war, due to his response, off Dover. He was angry and refused to strike his flag and lower his topsails, as the English desired in their home waters. Instead, he answered a signal shot with a broadside, and the battle and war had commenced. In July, he showed very per judgement in taking the fleet North. Even the authorities reacted to the resulting disaster. Almost concurrently, he had some culpability for allowing their 12 fishery protection cruiser (24 to 28 guns) to be bagged or sunk. The fallout from the abortive "Voyage to the North" was that Tromp was relieved of his command, and the fleet was given to the only officer who was acknowledged to be capable of commanding the fleet: Witte Cornelis de With. Given the bias toward Tromp, a Royalist, and against De With, a Republican, De With's credible performance at the Battle of the Kentish Knock was discounted, and Tromp was placed back in command. I have simulated the battle, and my opinion is that the English should have been able to heavily damage the Dutch. Instead, they only destroyed one and captured another. The English had two first rates and four second rates. They also had numerous fourth rates equipped with culverins (18-pounders). They Dutch were mostly equipped with 12-pounders on the lower tier. They were heavily outgunned. At Dungeness, Tromp almost succeeded in getting taken by the Garland (44 guns) and Anthony Bonaventure (36 guns). He was saved by Jan Evertsen, who came alongside and took one and then the other English ship. Tromp's flagship, the Brederode (54 guns) was devastated. You can see my drawing from my website: The Brederode under repair after Dungeness. At the Battle of Portland, in early 1653, Tromp had bombarded English shore installations, wasting precious shot and powder. They Dutch paid for that during the three days, when many ships ran low or even out of ammunition. Many captains were killed and many ships captured or sunk. By my count, 7 ships were sunk and 5 were captured at Portland. The Dutch fleet was so devastated at Portland (and the English were badly shot up) that there was a hiatus until late May 1653. The Battle of the Gabbard was another disaster, in early June 1653. By my count, they lost 14 major warships sunk or captured. Tromp had lost control, and allowed the English frigates to catch the Dutch without a rearguard. At Scheveningen, after Tromp was killed, Witte de With, Jan Evertsen, and Michiel De Ruyter were determined to keep another route, such as the Gabbard, from happening again. They were somewhat successful, because the Dutch lost somewhat fewer ships. My count is 10 sunk. At Scheveningen, Monck refused to take prizes. Any ships captured were burnt. Tromp was a "fair-haired boy", while Witte de With was hated. Part of Tromp's reputation is due to his association with Piet Hein's captured of the Spanish silver fleet in 1629. He also won the Battle of the Downs, in 1639, against the Spanish. He was also a Royalist, which was popular among the sailors. Witte de With was a Republican, so he was hated. Witte de With was also harsh and would take severe action against those who showed a faint heart. Those sorts seem to have been coddled by Tromp, until after the Gabbard.

Saturday, January 24, 2004

My new ship list for AOSII What is new for my current ship list for the scenarios is that the Dutch ships are identified, by admiralty, and also list their captains, in the extended name space. This proved necessary for configuration control. My new document, essentially a comprehensive list, Dutch Warships of the First Anglo-Dutch War has improved over the last several days, as assembling the scenarios has provided a useful check.
The Battle of Dungeness AOSII Privateers Bounty Sceniaro is complete I just finished testing the Battle of Dungeness scenario. I was disappointed that I had to scale the number of ships back to a total of 82. Still, if you play the scenario, as the Dutch, with the difficulty set high, the scenario is interesting enough. The English are not a push-over. I still need to repopulate the other scenarios with Dutch ships. I have completed the design documents (OOB's) for the game. A feature of this iteration is that the scenarios are designed for the necessary size, and the ships are organized into squadrons, as realistically as possible. I have had to rely on Dr. Ballhausen's book, as there is no alternative. I supplemented that, in a small way, with The First Dutch War.
AOSII Privateers Bounty My experience with building the Battle of Dungeness scenario is that AOSII Privateers bounty crashed while trying to add the 93rd ship. That is a pretty severe limitation. I wish that there were some alternative that would make use of more physical memory. Privateers Bounty has to run in Win98/ME compatibility mode, so that it is restricted to a 512K memory space (or whatever the exact amount is). I am running Windows XP Home and have 1GB of physical memory, so if the simulator could access that, it wouldn't be a problem.
The Battle of Dungeness Scenario I'm sorry to say that the full Battle of Dungeness scenario will not "fit" into Privateers Bounty. I am forced to use a reduced OOB, to make this work. Memory was exceeded as I was adding Witte de With's squadron (commanded in the battle by Michiel Adriaanszoon De Ruyter). I will need to pare back the English to the list that was fairly certain (according to R.C. Anderson's list). I will also pare back the Dutch, proportionally.

Friday, January 23, 2004

My third writing project: Dutch Ships 1620-1720 My third project is a listing of Dutch ships, starting from the early part of the 17th Century up to about 1720. Right now, the document is 46 pages. Much of what is there has never been published. That is mainly from copies of manuscripts, primarily from the Amsterdam Directors. Some of the rest is from obscure published sources (obscure to the English-speaking world), primarily Dr. Elias' book, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, in 6 volumes. I am also indebted to Professor Jan Glete, in Stockholm, who has kindly supplied me with his notes that he collected 20 years ago, when he was researching Navies and Nations. He also provided his notes and copies of French intelligence about the Dutch navy. Because of this, we have dimensions for Dutch ships that we would not have known.
The Battle of Dungeness I continue to progress towards having a Battle of Dungeness scenario ready for AOSII Privateers Bounty. I will eventually have all Dutch ships for the First Anglo-Dutch War, available for use. I strongly suspect, though, that I will need to go back and rework my first scenarios, as I did not have a coherent ship list, when I did them. One benefit of adding in all the ships, is that I have had an opportunity to review the list, and make corrections. Again, I do have a zip file with my original scenarios that I will e-mail, upon request. They are for the Battle of Dover, the Battle of Plymouth, the Battle of Monte Christo, and the Battle of the Kentish Knock.

Wednesday, January 21, 2004

Filips van Dorp
Filips van Dorp lived from 1587 to 1652. He was a captain of Zeeland in 1621, Vice-Admiral in 1624, Lieutenant-Admiral in 1626, and Lieutenant-Admiral of Holland in 1629.
In 1620-1621, he commanded the Meermin (20 guns) under Haultain and Swartenhondt in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1624, he was a squadron and convoy commander, operating against the Spanish Dunkirkers. He was awarded the golden chain, for his distinguished service. In 1625, he served under Haultain before Rochelle. In 1626, he served as Vice-Admiral for Dunkirk. In 1627, he established a corps to propagate sea-soldiers. He was blockade commander on the Flemish coast and in the Channel from 1632-1637, when he was dismissed.
R. C. Anderson later characterized Joris van Cats as a "Van Dorp" type, meaning that he was more of a politician and diplomat than commander in battle.
Jasper Liefhebber
Jasper Liefhebber lived from 1591to 28 May 1641. He served the Admiralty of Rotterdam (the Maas). He was a captain in 1621 and an admiral in 1628.
In 1622, he served under Swartenhondt in the battle near Gibraltar. In 1623, he fought against the Dunkirkers. In 1629, he served under Piet Hein (presumably during the capture of the Silver Fleet). In 1631, he served with Quast before Dunkirk. In 1632, he was blockade commander before Dunkirk and then a squadron commander in the North Sea. In 1633, he was a convoy commander to the Lizard. Again, in 1634, he was a convoy commander in the North Sea. In 1636 and 1637, he served under Van Dorp off the Flemish coast. He resigned in 1638.
This is all from my translation of the entries by Mollema, in his "Honor Roll".

Tuesday, January 20, 2004

More Dutch captains: Joost Verschuur Joost Verschuur was a captain of the Admiralty of Amsterdam (~1630-January 1672). He became a captain in 1658. In 1659, he commanded the Leeuwarden (36 guns) in De Ruyter's fleet in the Sound. In 1664 and 1665, he served with De Ruyter in the Mediterranean and on the Portuguese coast. During the operations leading up to the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Joost Verschuur was with Van Kampen's squadron, near Guinea, meant to rescue or recapture outposts on the African coast. In 1665, he commanded the Zuiderhuis (56 guns) at the Battle of Lowestoft. During 1666, he commanded the Jaarsveld (56 guns) at the Four Days Battle and the St. James Day Battle (the Two-Days Battle). In 1667, he commanded the Amsterdam (62 guns) in the raid on Chatham. In 1670, he was part of Van Ghent's operations against the Algerian pirates. In January of 1672, he was captain of the Waesdorp (70 guns), when he died.

Monday, January 19, 2004

More about the ultimate Dutch ship list for First Anglo-Dutch War wargaming I finished my first cut at the list, and am entering the rest of the ships into AOSII Privateers Bounty. One tweak that I did, to aid tracking ships, is to add the captains' names in the long name section. With many ships with the same name, I could not tell them apart. I realized that by supplying the captains, I would be able to differentiate between them. That will also aid me in adding ships to the scenarios. My next scenario will be the Battle of Dungeness. One revelation to me was that Michiel Adriaanszoon De Ruyter commanded Witte de With's squadron in the battle. I knew that Witte de With, and the Prinses Louise were not present, and I had wondered about his squadron. In De Ruyter's place, Jan Evertszoon de Liefde commanded his division in Jan Evertsen's squadron.

Sunday, January 18, 2004

My ultimate Dutch list for wargaming the First Anglo-Dutch War I am reviewing my list of Dutch ships, ordered by captain, for the First Anglo-Dutch War. If you wanted to "game" the war, this is the list to have, as it comprehensive, like nothing else published. It is not as good as I would like, as still too much has to be estimated, but thanks to my research from both obscure, published sources and from unpublished manuscripts, this list is the best thing that I have seen. Partly, I prepared the list to better define what I still need to learn. The other purpose is more practical: to provide data for developing scenarios for AOSII Privateers Bounty.
The Noorder-Kwartier ship, Prinses Roijaal I realized that this information may not have never been published. This is from the 1654 list, "Staet van Oorlogh te water voor den Jaere 1654" (or something close to that). Name: Prinses Roijaal Info. Date: 1654 Captain: Captain Ham Guns: 24 Admiralty: Noorder-Kwartier Date Built: 1641 Lenght: 125 ft Beam: 30 ft Hold: 11.5 ft Gun Details: 2-18pdr, 2-14pdr, 4-12pdr, 12-8pdr, 4-6pdr
Jan Evertsen's Journal I am fortunate to have a copy of Jan Evertsen's journal, from right before the Battle of Dungeness. The reason that I have consulted my copy of the handwritten journal is that the list of ships for the Battle of Dungeness, that is published in Vol. 3 of The First Dutch War is a transcription of the list in Evertsen's journal. Many, of not most, of the transcribed list are mangled. I know most of the names, so it is easy to fix those. There is one that is unfamiliar, so I thought I would consult "the source". The published name is "Hermes Mumincx". My reading of the handwritten name is "Herman Muninch". I now think that the final letter is an "h", as it is identical to the final letter of Cornelis Naeuoogh's name. I had, at first, thought that "Hermes" was correct, but I can now see that the second to the last letter is an "a". I now need to consult my list of known names, and see if I can find a plausible candidate. This just points out the utter necessity of having access to the original sources.

Saturday, January 17, 2004

Mollema's book When I say that something is from "Mollema", I mean it is from the "Honor Roll" appendix in Volume II of this book: Mollema, J. C. (Jarig Cornelis) (1881-1946), Geschiedenis van Nederland ter zee, 4 vols., Joost van den Vondel, Amsterdam, 1939-1942. There are quite a few copies of this book available for sale, I see. I had first seen Mollema's book at the De Golyer Library, at Southern Methodist University, in the summer of 1994. As I am bent on building lists of ships and captains, and developing my own narratives describing battles, this book is of only modest use. The work has some useful, although small, reproductions of Van de Velde drawings. For me, the most interesting parts are the appendices that list captains. As I am focused on the mid-Seventeenth Century, the "Honor Roll" in Vol.II is what I have used, exclusively.

Another writing project

Another writing project that I started in 2001 is Dutch Ships in Various Operations During the First Anglo-Dutch War. While this is very incomplete, it has grown in size to 85 pages. I would have been very excited, in the early 1990's, to have had this list of sources.

The following are the published sources that I cite, so far:

  1. [3DW] ed. Anderson, R.C., Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, Navy Records Society, London, 1946.
  2. [Baltic] Anderson, R.C., Naval Wars in the Baltic, Robert Stockwell Ltd., London, 1910.
  3. [MM49] Anderson, R.C., "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean" , The Mariner's Mirror, XLIX (1963), pp.241-265.
  4. [1DW4] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.IV, Navy Records Society, London, 1909.
  5. [1DW5] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.V, Navy Records Society, London, 1911.
  6. [1DW6] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.VI, Navy Records Society, London, 1930.
  7. [Ball] Ballhausen, Carl, Der Erste Englisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1652-1654, Haag, 1923.
  8. [Boxer] Boxer, C.R., The Journal of Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1930.
  9. [Brandt] Brandt, Gerard, Het Leven en Bedrijf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, Amsterdam, 1687.
  10. [OH17] Bredius, Dr. A., Moes, E.W., Oud-Holland, Vol.17, Amsterdam, 1899, Kraus Reprint, reprinted 1976.
  11. [Bruijn] Bruijn, Drs. J.R., De Oorlogvoering Ter Zee in 1673 in Journalen en Andere Stukken, Groningen, 1966.
  12. [Vloot] Elias, Johan E., De Vlootbouw in Nederland in de Eerste Helft der Zeventiende Eeuw, 1596-1655, Amsterdam, 1933.
  13. [Schetsen] Elias, Johan E., Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, 6 volumes, 's-Gravenhage, 1916-1930.
  14. [Weber] Van Foreest, H.A., Weber, R.E.J., De Vierdaagse Zeeslag 11-14 Juni 1666, Amsterdam, 1984.
  15. [4Days] Fox, Frank L., A Distant Storm, The Four Days Battle of 1666, Press of Sail Publications, Rotherfield, 1996.
  16. [1DW1] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., First Dutch War, Vol.I, Navy Records Society, London, 1898.
  17. [1DW2] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., First Dutch War, Vol.II, Navy Records Society, London, 1899.
  18. [1DW3] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., and Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.III, Navy Records Society, London, 1905.
  19. [Grove] Grove, G.L., Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), Amsterdam, 1907.
  20. [Hondius] Hondius, Jodocus, Onstelde-Zee, oft Zee-Daden. Voorgevallen tussen de Hoogh Mogende Heeren, De Heeren Staten Generaal der Vereende Neerlanden, Amsterdam, 1654.
  21. [Zeewezen] de Jonge, J.C., Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen, 5 Vols., Haarlem, 1858-1862.
  22. [Paintings] Robinson, M.S., The Paintings of the Willem Van De Veldes, Greenwich, 1990.
  23. [Rotterdam] Robinson, M.S., Weber, R.E.J, The Willem Van De Velde Drawings in the Boymans-Van Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam, 3 Vols, 1979.
  24. [Thurloe] Thurloe, John, A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, London, 1742.
  25. [Reis] Verhoog, P., Koelmans, L, De Reis van Michiel Adriaanszoon De Ruyter in 1664-1665, 's-Gravenhage, 1961.
  26. [LMW] Vreugdenhil, A., Ships of the United Netherlands, 1648-1702, London, 1938.
Jan Matthijsen Here is what Mollema has about Jan Matthijsen (or Jan Mathijszen): He died in 1673. His birthdate is not known. He served in the Admiralty of Zeeland, where he became a captain in 1653 and a Schout-bij-Nacht in 1666. In 1653, he was at the Battle of Scheveningen (Ter Heide). He 1657, he was a convoy commander in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1659, he commanded the Zeelandia (54 guns) under De Ruyter in the Sound, Funen, and Nyborg. In 1666, he commanded the Delft (34 guns) and the Vlissingen (50 guns) in the Four Days Battle and the St. James Day Battle (The Two Days Battle). In 1667, he was at the raid on Chatham. In 1672, he was a Schout-bij-Nacht at the battle of Solebay. I would like to include an HTML table, but they don't seem to work very well in Blogger. For many of the Dutch captains and admirals, I have entries, by year, about ships they commanded.
More Dutch Naval Officers Fredrik Stachouwer was born on 28 November 1628 and died on 14 June 1666, the last day of the Four Days Battle. He served the Admiralty of the Noorder-Kwartier. He had been a soldier, ensign, and lieutenat in Brazil to 1651. He was a lieutenant for the sea in 1652. He was a captain-lieutenant in 1662. In 1665, he was a captain and then Schout-bij-Nacht (Rear-Admiral). In 1652-1654, he served as a lieutenant under Pieter Florissen in the First Anglo-Dutch War. In 1658, her served the same function in the Battle of the Sound. From 1658 to 1662, he was in the Danish service. In 1662, he was a captain-lieutenant under Volckert Schram. In 1665, he distinguished himself at Lowestoft. In 1666, he was killed at the Four Days Battle. This information is from Mollema's book. What little I have from that source on Auke Stellingwerf follows: In summary: He was born in 1635 and was killed on 13 June 1665. He served the Friesland Admiralty. He was appointed captain in 1656. He became Lt-Admiral of Friesland in 1665. This was at a time when there was a reorganization where each admiralty was given a Lieutenant-Admiral. Previously, there was a single Lieutenant-Admiral. In the First Anglo-Dutch War, that was Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp. Auke Stellingwerf was extraordinarily young to be so elevated. In 1656, he commanded the Prinsen Wapen, 40 guns, under Van Wassenaer in the Sound and before Danzig. In 1658, he fought under Van Wassenaer at the Battle of the Sound. In 1665, he was killed on the Zevenwolden, 60 guns, at Lowestoft.

Thursday, January 15, 2004

John Stokes, English captain John Stokes seems to have not served past the Restoration, at least at sea. He held many important commands during the Interregnum, however. I have seen his name also spelled "Stoaks" and "Stoakes". 17th Century spellings seem to have been rather fluid, which complicates research. John Stokes commanded many ships between 1649 and 1660. He started in command of the Hector, in 1649. From 1650-1652, he commanded the frigate Dragon. In 1653, he commanded the Pelican, the Laurel, and then the Victory. In 1654, he commanded the James. From 1654-1655, he commanded the George. In 1655, he was Rear-Admiral in the Mediterranean, and flew his flag on the Unicorn. From 1656-1657, he was in the Rainbow. From 1657-1659, he was Admiral in the Mediterranean, and had his flag on the Lyme. In 1660, he commanded the Richard, which became the Royal James, after the Restoration. The reference to "John Stoakes" after 1660 is on page 25 of Frank Fox's book, A Distant Storm: the four days battle of 1666. There was a Captain Stoakes who had a business pressing seaman for the Restoration navy. Peter Pett complained about the poor quality of men he had been providing. That is the last mention I have seen. If this is the same man, then he must have been judged to not have so politically unreliable that he would have been imprisoned or killed, but not so suitable as to be employed in the navy, the way that others had been.

Wednesday, January 14, 2004

My first project: Dutch Captains I have three main projects underway. I generally interweave work on them. The first of them is about Dutch captains. I have taken a few pieces from this manuscript and published them in this blog. It is called: Dutch Captains. This is currently a 50-page manuscript. I started work on this project in 1999. I began this mainly as a way to aid research on the First Anglo-Dutch War, and then expanded the scope to the first, second, and third wars. My sources are: [3DW] ed. Anderson, R.C., Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, Navy Records Society, London, 1946. [1DW4] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.IV, Navy Records Society, London, 1909. [1DW5] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.V, Navy Records Society, London, 1911. [1DW6] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.VI, Navy Records Society, London, 1930. [Ball] Ballhausen, Carl, Der Erste Englisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1652-1654, Haag, 1923. [Boxer] Boxer, C.R., The Journal of Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1930. [OH17] Bredius, Dr. A., Moes, E.W., Oud-Holland, Vol.17, Amsterdam, 1899, Kraus Reprint, reprinted 1976. [Bruijn] Bruijn, Drs. J.R., De Oorlogvoering Ter Zee in 1673 in Journalen en Andere Stukken, Groningen, 1966. [Vloot] Elias, Johan E., De Vlootbouw in Nederland in de Eerste Helft der Zeventiende Eeuw, 1596-1655, Amsterdam, 1933. [4Days] Fox, Frank L., A Distant Storm, The Four Days Battle of 1666, Press of Sail Publications, Rotherfield, 1996. [1DW1] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., First Dutch War, Vol.I, Navy Records Society, London, 1898. [1DW2] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., First Dutch War, Vol.II, Navy Records Society, London, 1899. [1DW3] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., and Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.III, Navy Records Society, London, 1905. [Grove] Grove, G.L., Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), Amsterdam, 1907. [Paintings] Robinson, M.S., The Paintings of the Willem Van De Veldes, Greenwich, 1990. [Rotterdam] Robinson, M.S., Weber, R.E.J, The Willem Van De Velde Drawings in the Boymans-Van Beuningen Museum, 3 Vols., Rotterdam, 1979. [Reis] Verhoog, P., Koelmans, L, De Reis van Michiel Adriaanszoon De Ruyter in 1664-1665, 's-Gravenhage, 1961. [LMWD] Vreugdenhil, A., Ships of the United Netherlands, 1648-1702, London, 1938.
The Dutch captains named 't Hoen The elder captain Albert Corneliszoon 't Hoen was killed at the Battle of Monte Cristo, on 6 September 1652. He had been born in 1597, and as a young man had served under Mooy Lambert in the Mediterranean Sea (1619). He had extensive experience in the Mediterranean, as he had battled the Algerians in 1628. Later in 1628, he had served under Marinus Hollare operating against the Spanish Dunkirkers. In 1639, he was at the Battle of the Downs, when the Spanish fleet was all but annihilated by the Dutch. In 1651, 't Hoen served under Joris van Cats, back in the Mediterranean Sea. Govert Albertszoon 't Hoen must have been Albert's son, as that is what his name indicates. Govert 't Hoen was born in 1629, and also served under the Noorder-Kwartier Admiralty, when he was old enough. He became a captain in 1655. In 1658, he was at the Battle of the Sound, where he commanded the Jonge Prins, 30 guns, a veteran of many battles. Later in 1659, he was in De Ruyter's fleet in the Sound. He continued with De Ruyter, and served under him in the Mediterranean, in 1664. Captain 't Hoen commanded the Caleb, which at that time only carried 36 guns (I suppose for service in distant waters). By the time of the Four Days Battle in 1666, he was in the Jozua, a considerably larger ship, when he was a Schout-bij-nacht (Rear-Admiral). He was killed at the St. James Day Battle, a few months later.
Anthonis van Salingen and the First Anglo-Dutch War in the Mediterranean In mid-1652, Anthonis van Salingen was a senior captain in the Dutch Mediterranean fleet. He commanded the Amsterdam Admiralty ship, the Zon, 40 guns. After the English commodore Appleton was trapped in Livorno with his division, van Salingen was left, with a division of four ships, to guard him. By doing so, he missed the Battle of Monte Cristo between Commodore Badiley and the Dutch fleet commander, Johan van Galen. The English severely handled the Dutch, but ended in a moral collapse, where they escaped to Porto Logone, on the island of Elba. Badiley's flagship, the Paragon had lost her mainmast, and had been severely punished. Morale was low after the frigate Phoenix was lost. After Captain Salingen died on 30 November 1652 (probably an old style date), Cornelis Tromp became the commander. He had been disgraced by the English recapture of the Phoenix in Livorno harbor, in a daring raid. This information is largely from R.C. Anderson's article "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean" in the November 1963 Mariner's Mirror. I also consulted Dr. Elias' book Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen.

Tuesday, January 13, 2004

17th Century Dutch Naval Officers I have a few notes from a source that many people might not have seen. In an appendix to Vol.II of Geschiedenis van Nederland Ter Zee, by J. C. Mollema (Amsterdam, 1940), he has a listing of Dutch naval officers (my translation is the "Honor Roll"). I have supplemented this with information from my paper, "Dutch Ships: 1620-1720". One is Rudolf Coenders, who served the Admiralty of Friesland. He only became a captain in 1662, when he was only 24 years old. By 1665, he had been appointed a Vice-Admiral. He had served as a teenager, at the Battles of the Gabbard and Scheveningen, in 1653. In the Second Anglo-Dutch War, he was at the Battle of Lowestoft, the action at Bergen, the Four Days Battle, until he was killed at the St. Jame's Day Battle, in 1666. In June, 1665, Rudolf Coenders flew his flag, as Vice-Admiral, in the 40-gun ship, the Groningen. In August, 1665, Coenders was in the 54-gun ship, the Stad en Lande. In 1666, he was in the 72-gun ship, the Groningen. Jan Corneliszoon Meppel is another officer listed in this appendix. There is no record of him, in any source that I have, prior to 1659, when he was in De Ruyter's fleet in the Sound. He had been appointed a Vice-Admiral of the Noorder-Kwartier in 1659. By 1665, he had been promoted to Lieutenant-Admiral. In 1659, Meppel had been appointed to replace Pieter Florissen, who had been killed at the Battle of the Sound, in late 1658. In 1661, he operated with Michiel De Ruyter against the Algerians. In 1664, he accompanied De Ruyter in operations near Guinea and the West Indies. In 1666, he served at the Four Days Battle and the St. Jame's Day Battle. In 1667, he took part in the raid on Chatham. In 1664, he commanded the 50-gun ship, the Noorderkwartier. From 1666, Meppel flew his flag on the 78-gun ship, the Westfriesland.

Monday, January 12, 2004

Jeremy Smith in the First Anglo-Dutch War I was aware of Jeremy Smith's service in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. I had not realized that he had served in the first war. I apparently had not done a good enough job of reading the index in The First Dutch War, as I had not seen the references to him. On September 13, 1653, he was captain of the frigate Advice, 42 guns (Vol.VI, page 50). Earlier, in June 1653, he had commanded the Advice at the Battle of the Gabbard (Vol.V, p.16). On April 27, 1654, Captain Smith wrote a letter to the Admiralty Council describing the capture of the Dutch East Indiaman, the Roos of Amsterdam. He described the Roos as being about 800 tons and having 26 guns. The Roos served in the English navy as the Indian. The Indian was measured as 687 tons and carried 60 guns. The VOC website says that the Roos was a three-masted galjoot. The Indian was sold in 1660.
Breaking the line My experience running simulations has given me more confidence in my belief that breaking the line can radically affect the outcome of a battle. If you care breaking an enemy's line, you can only hope that they are in a strict single line. If they are, then they are very vulnerable. Of course, in the run up to breaking the line, you are vulnerable to raking fire, but if you have a column that is not a single line, it is not a critical point. I had not realized, until recently, upon restudying De Ruyter's action against Sir George Ayscue, at the Battle of Plymouth, that De Ruyter broke the English line several times. The Dutch also broke the English line several times at Scheveningen, in the last battle. I already knew that the English broke the Dutch line. When breaking the line consists simply of sailing your single line through the Dutch formation, there is a lesser effect than when the goal of breaking the line is to fight a melee battle against an isolated portion of the enemy fleet.

Sunday, January 11, 2004

The Battle of the Kentish Knock-simulated My next move in the AOSII Privateers Bounty "wars" is to develop a reduced OOB for the Battle of the Kentish Knock, showing the ships organized as they will be added to the scenario. Apparently, even the Dutch were organized into squadrons. Dr. Ballhausen claims an organization into van, center, and rear squadrons, along with a reserve squadron under the command of Cornelis Evertsen de Oude.

Saturday, January 10, 2004

Apparently, we will not be able to simulate the largest battles I found out, to my dismay, that there are limits to how large a battle that AOSII Privateers Bounty can handle. When I was adding ships to the Battle of the Kentish Knock, which is not overly large, Privateers Bounty "crashed". What it did was to spontaneously quit, losing ship definitions and the scenario that I had entered, after last saving. I believe, as well, that I lost ship definitions, even after I had saved. I deleted English ships, and then added some more Dutch ships. I was at least able to run the simulation. I commanded the Dutch against the English fleet. This is the first time that the English had won, when I had commanded the Dutch. Admittedly, the odds were long. The English had two 1st Rates, the Resolution and Sovereign, and multiple 2nd Rates, as well as some 3rd Rates, such as the Speaker and the original Fairfax. The Dutch only had three very large ships: the Brederode, the Prins Willem, and the Vogelstruis. The latter two were East Indiamen. There were two other VOC ships: the Vrede and the Louise Hendrika. They were smaller ships, not the 160 or 170 feet type. The rest of the Dutch ships were 24 to 34 gun ships. Some were quite small, being just under 300 tons, computed the English way. I converted the Dutch measurement system to the English system, computed the burden and the navigational draft. Both are really just estimates, but the draft is especially so. I based my estimate on studying the underwater shape from a contemporary drawing. I would like to rerun the simulation, and pay closer attention to maneuvering the Dutch ships, as when I was more careful about that, the Dutch did better. I still did a "fight to the finish", which is decidedly not realistic.
An unexpected question about William Haddock I realized that I had another source to research the career of Captain William Haddock. This is R. C. Anderson's List ofEnglish Naval Captains 1642-1660, which is Society for Nautical Research Occasional Publications No. 8, London, 1964. This small publication says that William Haddock commanded a hired merchant ship, the Hannibal, from 1652 to 1656. I started to look further, after I found that William Haddock commanded the Hannibal as a captain, in Vice-Admiral of the Red James Peacock's division at the Battle of the Gabbard (12-13 June 1653 N.S.). On 27 December 1653, he was still in command of the Hannibal. How could William Haddock have gone from a Vice-Admiral of the White to a simple captain? R.C. Anderson's explanation is that there was a Richard Haddock. Richard Haddock started this period, in 1642, commanding the 2nd Rate Vanguard. From 1643 to 1644, Richard Haddock commanded the small 3rd Rate Antelope. Later in 1644, he commanded the purchased ship John. By 1648, Richard Haddock commanded the 2nd Rate Unicorn. By 1652, he was back in the Vanguard, as a Vice-Admiral. Why is The First Dutch War (and other sources that rely upon it) so different? The explanation may be the death of Dr. Gardiner and a new editor, C. T. Atkinson, who was not familiar with the material. This could be another manifestation of that situation. I have found numerous mistakes like this, so why not another? Another piece of evidence can be found on page 269 of Vol.I, The First Dutch War. On 13 June 1652, "Captain Haddock the younger be appointed captain of the ship Hannibal in place of Tatum deceased". Immediately following that entry, there is an entry appointing Captain Harrison as captain of the Vanguard, as of the same date. I am now looking at page 17, Vol.II of The First Dutch War, and see that again, a "Captain Haddock" is appointed as captain of the Vanguard (26 July 1652 New Style). The next day, he was appointed as Sir George Ayscue's Vice-Admiral. Now I look at page 239, in Vol.II, and see that there is a quote "old Capt. Haddock in the Vanguard". I now assume that this refers to Richard Haddock (the old captain Haddock, not the young captain Haddock, William). The next piece of evidence is found on page 22 of Vol.IV of The First Dutch War. The list of English ships thought to have been at the Battle of Portland includes William Haddock as the captain of the Hannibal. I'm not sure that I would want to use Oppenheim's History of the Administration of the Royal Navy as a source for that (unless I am mis-reading the footnote). A related piece of evidence is a "List of the Merchant Ships appointed for the Straits, being part in the Harbour and part in the Road", also in Vol.IV, on page 280. This list includes the Hannibal, 44 guns, commanded by William Haddock. I am certain that R.C. Anderson has the story right, and that William Haddock was not the Vice-Admiral, but it was Richard Haddock. The evidence is overwhelming, in my view.

Friday, January 09, 2004

Henry Appleton Henry Appleton commanded one of two small divisions of ships that had been dispatched to the Mediterranean by the English. The other division was commanded by Richard Badiley. They were both designated as Commodores. Appleton had experience at sea in merchant vessels. He was from Hull, and had been a Warden of Trinity House. The Parliamentarian naval administration had wanted to give him command of a warship. In 1651, was given command of the Leopard. On his arrival in the Mediterranean, Appleton's division consisted of his flagship, the Leopard, 48 guns; the Bonaventure, 44 guns; and the Constant Warwick, 32 guns. At the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch war, the original Dutch Mediterranean commander, Joris van Cats, trapped Appleton in the Livorno harbor. He was not to emerge until 14 March 1653, when his division was defeated, the Leopard captured, and Appleton was made prisoner by the Dutch. During the 9 months they were there, the Grand Duke of Tuscany was in negotiations with the Dutch and English, trying to get Appleton's squadron to leave Livorno. By March 1653, Appleton's division had grown to include 4 merchant ships, as well as his two warships. I would call it a squadron. He had orders to leave port and join with Badiley's squadron. Instead, he was engaged by the Dutch squadron and defeated, before Richard Badiley could close. Badiley later charged that Appleton had not fought very hard, before he surrendered. The captured English captains were exchanged in May 1653. Appleton returned to Trinity house, and never served again in the Navy, for the rest of his life. He died in 1657. This account relies upon R.C. Anderson's article in the Mariner's Mirror, "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean", from the November 1963 issue.

Thursday, January 08, 2004

James Peacock These are some notes about James Peacock, who at the beginning of the First Anglo-Dutch War, was a captain. He eventually was promoted to be a Vice-Admiral, but was killed at the Battle of Scheveningen. The notes are all from various places in the Navy Records Society publication, The First Dutch War. All dates are "new style". In January 1652, James Peacock was a captain who commanded the frigate, the Tiger. On 2 June, he was ordered to the Downs, with his ship. Sometime in June, Captain Peacock had taken part in a fight with two Dutch warships, along with Captain John Taylor, in the Laurel. Captain Peacock was commended for his actions, while Captain Taylor was criticized. On 24 October, Captain Peacock and two other captains, in their ships, captured a Dutch 20-gun ship. On 9 November, a prize taken by Captain Peacock, the Morgenstar was to be renamed Plover, and was to be used as a warship. On 26 November 1652, there was a desire to give Captain Peacock command of a new frigate, when one was available. On 7 December, Captain Peacock was lying at Harwich, needing a new bowsprit for his ship. He was ordered to proceed to the Lee Road, and to obtain a bowsprit, there. He was to convoy what colliers were available, and have the three ships, Oak, Gillyflower, and Paul accompany him. A council of war was held, on 24 December 1652, on board Robert Blake's flagship, the Triumph. James Peacock was one of the attendees. They made some resolutions about how to correct the problems that were revealed at the Battle of Dungeness. For the Battle of Portland, James Peacock was a Vice-Admiral of the White, with his flag in the 2nd Rate, the Rainbow. The Admiral of the White was George Monck, with his flag in the 2nd Rate Vanguard. In early April, Deane and Monck gave Vice-Admiral Peacock the Triumph as his new flagship. The Triumph was available, as Deane and Monck now had the 1st Rate Resolution (88 guns) as their flagship. At the Battle of the Gabbard, 12 and 13 June 1653, James Peacock was Vice-Admiral of the Red. He was still in the Triumph. On 15 August 1653, James Peacock was listed as one of the English "captains" who was killed at the Battle of Scheveningen. Apparently, the custom was that Admirals functioned as captain of their own ship. He had commanded the Triumph, again, at Scheveningen.
The First Dutch War (the Navy Record Society book) I have been reading The First Dutch War for over a decade. A feature of this work is that the original editor, Dr. Gardner, died early in the publication cycle. His successor was much less familiar with both the subject and the material. As a result, the later volumes have documents mis-labelled and mis-dated. For example, there is a ship list said to be for April 1653 that is actually dating from the latter English Civil War (April 1649). There are so many internal indications that this is so, that it is almost incomprehensible that the editor could have not understood this. Another case if a listing of Michiel De Ruyter's squadron (said to be from the fall of 1653), which was actually from August 1652. Again, to someone familiar with the material, this is obvious. This was published in Volume VI. What prompted this, is that I just did some research about Captain Anthony Young, an English captain who commanded a detachment of three ships, in May 1652, in an encounter that was critical in the start of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In Volume VI of The First Dutch War, on page 79, there is a mention that Captain Young was accompanying Dutch prizes, in September 1653. In fact, he had been sacked and charged with not bringing his ship into combat at the Battle of Dungeness, in 1652. This was another case of the editor not being familiar with the material. Admittedly, I had the benefit of an index for the series, which was only produced for Volume VI, after everything else was published.

Wednesday, January 07, 2004

Jan Gideonszoon Verburch (or Verburgh) I have collected some notes, in support of my writing projects, about Jan Gideonszoon Verburch. I have seen handwritten documents (along with The First Dutch War) that refer to him as Verburch, not Verburgh. Frank Fox calls him "Verburgh", which may well be correct, as least by the current spelling systems in place, in the Netherlands. My notes: He was a late arrival from the Texel, to join De Ruyter’s fleet, probably on July, 1652 [1DW6, p.157] On July 26, 1652, Capt. Jan Gideonssen Verburch was assigned as Commodore, with seven other captains reporting to him. [1DW2, p.49] On July 31, 1652, Capt. Verburch received instructions that, if he were to fall in with the ships returning from Spain, that he was to convoy those ships back to the Netherlands. [1DW2, p.56] Promoted to Rear Admiral in De Ruyter's fleet on August 18, 1652 [1DW2, p.111] Listed as being part of De Ruyter's fleet, in the ship the Graaf Willem, with 120 men [1DW2], p.147 On September 2, 1652, attended a council of war on board De Ruyter's ship, the Neptunus [1DW2, p.164] In early 1653, Jan Gideonssen Verburch (Verburgh) was captain of the Amsterdam ship, the Graaf Willem, which had 40 guns and a crew of 140 men. His ship was listed as lying, ready, in the Texel, but a notation on the list says that she was out to sea. [1DW4, p.309] In 1659, Jan Gideonszoon Verburgh commanded the ship, de Amsterdam, which was part of the fleet, commanded by De Rutyer, that was operating near Denmark. The ship had a crew of 225 men and carried 54 guns. This was a ship belonging to the Amsterdam Admiralty. [Grove, p.xiv] Bibliography: [1DW4] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.IV, Navy Records Society, London, 1909. [1DW6] ed. Atkinson, C.T., First Dutch War, Vol.VI, Navy Records Society, London, 1930. [1DW2] ed. Gardiner, Dr. S.R., First Dutch War, Vol.II, Navy Records Society, London, 1899. [Grove] Grove, G.L., Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), Amsterdam, 1907.

Tuesday, January 06, 2004

De Jonge Boer Jaap One question I have is if the listing for (Jan van Nes) de Jonge Boer Jaap, in the Rotterdam Admiralty document dated 26 February 1652 is correct, or in error. He is said, in that document, to have commanded the ship Gelderland. The specifications were: 20 guns Length: 100 feet Beam: 23 feet Hold: 8 feet All of the dimensions in the document were in Maas feet, so the dimesions in Amsterdam feet were something like this: Length: 109 feet Beam: 25 feet Hold: 8 feet-8 inches (it could have been 9 feet) This would be of the same dimensions as the two 22-gun frigates, the Utrecht and the Overijssel. My concern stems from the listing of ships in Michiel De Ruyter's fleet, in August 1653. The Jonge Boer Jaap's ship was the Gelderland (said to be commanded by Lieutenant Jan van Nes). The ship was said to have 26 guns and a crew of 100 men. Is this the same ship, with a mistake in the information, somewhere? Or, are they two different ships? That seems unlikely, although it is possible.
Why am I writing about the First Anglo-Dutch War? The reason is that is where I have done my research, and where a great deal remains to be done. Frank Fox has the definitive work on the Second Anglo-Dutch War, his book A Distant Storm: the four days battle of 1666. As for the Third Anglo-Dutch War, there is no definitive work. There are a number of useful works, but there is still room for more research and and writing. From the Dutch perspective, the First Anglo-Dutch War either continued or ended the careers of officers who had figured prominently in period from 1628, or earlier, to 1648. The greatest event of the era was the Battle of the Downs, when the Dutch fleet, under the command of Marten Tromp, decimated the Spanish armada, in English coastal waters. One example of such an officer was Cornelis Engelen Silvergieter, who at the beginning of the first war, commanded the 22-gun Rotterdam Admiralty ship, the Overijssel. By late in 1652, Dirck Vijch took over command from him. In 1628 and 1628, Captain Silvergieter had commanded the 170-last warship, the Zeekalf. There are some obvious examples of careers beginning in the First Anglo-Dutch War, or shortly before. The most prominent was Cornelis Tromp (1629-1691), son of Marten. Another example was Jan van Nes, the Jonge Boer Jaep (1631-1680). In February, 1652, he commanded the frigate Gelderland.
Dr. Ballhausen's book After having criticized Dr. Ballhausen's book (for good reason), I find that I am referring to it frequently, while preparing scenarios for the First Anglo-Dutch War battles. First, he has maps that show the wind direction, which is a critical fact. Second, for the Dutch, he shows the fleet organization, at least for the Battle of Plymouth and the Battle of the Kentish Knock. I need to revisit the Battle off Dover, and see if he has any guidance for the organization, in that battle.

Monday, January 05, 2004

A new scenario: the Battle of the Kentish Knock (8 October 1652 NS) I am in the process of entering the Dutch ship information for the Kentish Knock. I already have the complete English fleet entered. I have done all of the calculations, and have a Word document that has the OOB spelled out (without the details). I will be interested to see how AOSII does with 60 or 70 ships to a side. I am hopeful that it will work out. The main way for it to be a problem is to be individually controlling a large number of ships. As long as you control groups of ships, it seems to not overwhelm the processor. Thanks to Rick van Velden, at the Nationaal Archief, in the Hague, I can largely fill in the OOB for the Kentish Knock, with only a few guesses. I still don't know the name of Abraham van der Hulst's ship, at the beginning of the First Anglo-Dutch War. I know that the ship had 26 guns and had a crew of 100 men. There are a few other ship names that I have not been able to identify. One thing that I learned, early in 2003, is that there are a large number (40 or more) of ships whose name has never been published. There are a few others whose name has only been published in an obscure place, and 75 or more years ago, in a book written in Dutch. There is much room for new scholarship and publication in this field.
The Battle of Monte Cristo (6 September 1652) When I tried running the simulator against this scenario, with me commanding the Dutch squadron, the English were quickly crushed. In retrospect, this should have not been a surprise. The Dutch had 10 ships, including 5-40 to 44 gun ships and 4 ships with 32-34 guns. There was only one 28-gun ship, the Noorder-Kwartier ship, the Jonge Prins. The English had one 2nd Rate, the Paragon (the former Carolian Great Ship, the Henrietta Maria) and three 4th Rate frigate (32 to 36 guns). The other four ships were hired merchantmen, with 24 to 32 guns. With realistic ship burdens (many between 200 and 350 tons), many ships are sunk by gunfire, as their power to absorb hits is small. Occasionally, ships are dismasted, but they seem more likely to be sunk. A few surrender, but approximately three times as many are sunk, with several more being burnt. This was only likely where there were a large number of ships (more than just 8 or 10).
Scenarios I will be tweaking my first three scenarios for the First Anglo-Dutch War. I am also starting on the Battle of the Kentish Knock, the first major battle of the war, between the main fleets. The Dutch OOB is easily constructed from Witte de With's correspondence, prior to, and immediately after the Battle. I am relying upon R. C. Anderson's OOB, from the 1938 Mariner's Mirror, supplemented by Carl Ballhausen's book (despite my reservations about the latter). I will be interested to see how larger fleets fare in the AOSII simulation engine. I have a moderately aggressive game machine, with a AMD Athlon 1700XP (about 1.4GHz), 1GB of RAM, and a 64-bit video card, with the needed support for 3-D graphics. The OS is Windows XP Home.
The power of breaking the line When I played out the Battle of Plymouth simulation, I commanded the Dutch fleet (in the historical situation, that commanded by Michiel Adriaanszoon de Ruyter). My tactics were to break the English line, and stay situated in that general area, sailing back and forth. I did not have the Dutch in a strict, single line, but the English started that way. The result was that the English van was separated from the action, downwind, while the English rear was crushed. This is very consistent with the results achieved at Trafalger, in 1805, except at Trafalger, the English had two lines that broke the Franco-Spanish line. The results were the same, the English fell on the Allied rear and crushed them. This reminds me of Napoleonic tactics, in land warfare, where he attacked in columns, to poke holes in the opposing lines. The same principle was used in the German tactics against France, in 1940, except the effect was more on the strategic level.

Sunday, January 04, 2004

I will redo the Battle of Monte Cristo (6 September 1652) scenario I decided to grind through the Anglo-Dutch war battles, ordered chronologically, so I do my version of the Battle of Monte Cristo next. After that, I will finally get to the Battle of the Kentish Knock. I believe that I have a system developed for how to do scenarios. A nasty feature of the First Anglo-Dutch War is that we don't have complete information for either the English or the Dutch. I am studying the Dutch side, although I can imagine doing some in depth work on the English side. I am pretty far into the English, as it is. After I finish the First Anglo-Dutch War, I intend to do a Battle of the Sound (8 November 1658) scenario.
The Battle of Plymouth (26 August 1652) scenario I've finished my first attempt at a Privateers Bounty scenario for the Battle of Plymouth. I was struck with just how many small English ships were present, many of which were hired merchantmen. Ayscue had two large 2nd Rates, as well: his flagship, the Rainbow and the Vanguard. Both were equipped with demi-cannon (32-pdrs) on the lower tier, but only an incomplete tier (about 16). The Dutch took losses, but, as usual, it was total annihilation of the English. Again, this is only something that would happen in a game, as no one in real life would stake everything on a single battle. If anyone would like the ships and scenario for Privateers Bounty, please send an e-mail, and I will reply with the two files as attachments.
More "Battle of Plymouth" I have finished developing the orders-of-battle for the Dutch and English. I have entered the Dutch ships into Privateers Bounty, and have started entering the English, as well. I was struck by just how many small, hired merchantmen, the English had in Ayscue's fleet. I had not thought about this, but the largest ship at the battle was the Dutch Indiaman, the Vogelstruis. She did not compare with the English 2nd Rates that carried demi-cannon, however. I hope to be able to try the scenario in the simulator, later today. Again, the Dutch were outnumbered by the English, so you might think that they would have an advantage. In the actual battle, however, neither side lost a ship, although the Vogelstruis was hard-pressed. The English withdrew from the battle, and the Dutch convoy was unharmed, so you would tend credit the Dutch, under Michiel De Ruyter, with the victory.

Saturday, January 03, 2004

Misidentified ships One challenge for researchers is that often sources have mistakes. For example, in developing the Dutch order-of-battle for the Battle of Plymouth, an obvious source is the document published in The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, pages 156 and 157. The ship, Kasteel van Medemblik, commanded by Gabriel Antheunissen, was said to be a Friesland ship. The Kasteel van Medemblik was actually a Noorder-Kwartier Admiralty ship. For disobeying his admiral, Pieter Florissen, and failing to support him at the Battle of Portland, Captain Antheunissen lost his ship, and was replaced by Adriaan Houttuijn.
The Battle of Plymouth (26 August 1652) I have been thinking about the next scenario to develop for use with the Age of Sail II-Privateers Bounty simulation. The Battle of Plymouth, between 38 English ships, commanded by Sir George Ayscue, and 30 Dutch ships commanded by Michiel de Ruyter seems like a good candidate. The main difficulty is that the English list will be rather speculative. R.C. Anderson has a very incomplete English order-of-battle in "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War", in the Mariner's Mirror, Vol. XXIV (1938). Frank Fox had originally pointed out this article to me, and I have drawn upon it, as nothing better has been published since then. My plan is to use some English ship lists, showing hired ships, from the The First Dutch War, Vol. I. I am also tempted to use Ballhausen's book, despite my reluctance to do so. There are few alternatives.

Friday, January 02, 2004

Privateers Bounty scenario-Battle off Dover I just finished my first attempt at a Privateers Bounty scenario. My friend Alex, in Russia, did three for me about 10 months ago. I just finished my initial version of the Battle off Dover, 29 May 1652 (new style). The forces involved were the Dutch fleet of 42 ships plus two ships that had been convoying 7 straatsvaarders. The English consisted of three patrol ships, commanded by Anthony Young, Robert Blake's squadron, from Rye Bay (12 ships) and Nehemiah Bourne's squadron from the Downs (9 ships). I need to give Carl Ballhausen credit, as I went to his book to find out the correct starting wind direction. It is also the case, when I do the Battle of Plymouth (26 August 1652), the battle between De Ruyter and Ayscue, I will need to use Ballhausen. If anyone would be interested in the Battle off Dover scenario files, I can send them. I was not able to do a proper export, but I do have the scenario file plus my custom ship definitions. That should be sufficient. Send me an e-mail and I will send the two files, in reply. Yes, I will tell you how the game played. I played the Dutch, and they thrashed the English. It doesn't say good things about the game that this was true, but maybe it really does reflect the ability of the Dutch, when they are serious about fighting. I have reason to believe that they had some reservations about the real battle, and didn't fight to the finish, the way that I played the game. In my game playing, the Campen and Zeelandia took on Anthony Young's squadron, in a separate action, and the Dutch fleet, in line, came close to obliterating Robert Blake's squadron, except for the James and Speaker (as I recall). Next, Nehemiah Bourne's squadron came out of the Downs, and fought hard, since they had 3 second rates, but was eventually defeated. The last English ship to be destroyed was Blake's James (in my game). The Dutch lost 10 ships destroyed to the English 21 destroyed and 3 surrendered. When they Dutch were at their top, at Dungeness, with similar odds in their favor, they did well. The main difference between the game and the historical situation is that in reality, they didn't fight to the finish, they way you do in the game.
Estimating Gross Tonnage for English and Dutch ships I started, last night, the process of learning the AOSII Privateers Bounty (game from Akella) scenario editor. Creating ships is quite easy. I have a spreadsheet that I use to do the calculations, as I need to calculate the "Hull" and "Depth" numbers. The "Hull" is actually the burden, calculated in English units. The formula is: Burden (in tons) = LK * B * B / 188 where LK = length on the keel B = beam outside the planking. (For purists, you would write the formula as: Burden = LK * B * (B/2) / 94 The difference is that the B/2 is a nominal depth. For whatever reason, the English eliminated a true depth in hold from the calculation. Earlier tonnage calculations used a true depth. The Dutch equivalent, the (non) calculation for "lasts" actually uses the depth in the hold: Lasts = L * B * D / K L = length from stem to sternpost B = beam inside the planking D = depth in hold, measured to the deck edge, not the center of the deck. This ignores the deck camber in the calculation. K = a factor that, sadly, was not fixed. This makes this calculation not very useful. In reality, "lasts" figures were estimated, so that causes the factor to be wildly variable. Still, if you want to be able to estimate size of ships (contrary to Ab Hoving's advice), you are forced to deal with this. Generally, "lasts" are rounded, so you have figures like "300 lasts" or "150 lasts". In reality, based on known figures for the mid-17th Century, we can fairly reasonably estimate ship sizes. The best we can do are estimates, but they are not that bad: Heemskerck, Abel Tasman's ship, built in 1638 (thanks to for this information) Length: 106 feet Beam: 24 feet Hold: 9 feet Let's start by using an initial estimate for K=237 Lasts = 106 x 24 x 9 / 237 = 96.6 From this, I suspect that the right nominal lasts number is 100, so we adjust K, accordinly: Lasts = 100 = 106 x 24 x 9 / K K = 106 x 24 x 9 / 100 K = 228.96 From this, you can follow my method. Now, let's estimate the depth of hold for the Noorder-Kwartier ship, the Eenhoorn. The Eenhoorn has been called the patriarch of Dutch ships during the First Anglo-Dutch War (I believe by Dr. Elias). From the "Staet van Oorlogh te water voor den jaere 1654", we know the length and beam (125 feet and 29 feet, respectively). We also know that the ship was usually estimated as 200 lasts (I believe that a 1628 list gave a figure of 220 lasts). Again, I use an initial estimate for K = 237. 200 lasts = 125 x 29 x D / 237 D = 13 feet Revised K = 235.625 As a matter of interest, we know the Eenhoorn's armament in 1654: 7-12 pdr 13-10 pdr 4-8 pdr 2-6 pdr 2-4 pdr 2-3 pdr As you can see, the Eenhoorn was armed with "odds and ends". We might imagine that ammunition supply might have been a challenge, with so many calibers.

Thursday, January 01, 2004

The Prinses Aemilia I was looking at the Sailing Warship website, and noticed the entry for the 28-gun Amsterdam Admiralty ship, the Aemilia. We know that the Prinses Aemilia was lost at the Battle of the Gabbard, in 1653, when she was commanded by Jan Fransz. Smit, the lieutenant of Jan Ter Stege. Apparently, Jan Ter Stege was absent at the time of the battle. The ship, here, is called the Prinses, but we know that the ship commanded by Jan Ter Stege in 1653 was the Aemilia. Up until the Battle of Portland (the Three Days Battle), the Aemilia had been commanded by the famous Willem van der Zaan. After his brother, Joris van der Zaan, was killed at Portland, he assumed command of his brother's ship, the Campen (or Kampen). The reference for this is note 3 on page 94, in Volume V of Dr. Johan E. Elias' book, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, 's-Gravenhage, 1928. This 6-volume book is very useful, as there is much information from the Dutch archives that has not been published elsewhere. The reference for Jan Ter Stege commanding the Aemilia is on page 309 in Volume IV of The First Dutch War, ed. C.T. Atkinson, London, 1909. The listing in the table shows that the crew consisted of 100 men. The table, which goes from page 308 to 310, contains information that seems generally to be from April 1653, although it is undated.

More about Scheveningen (10 August 1653)

I am examining what Michael Robinson wrote about the Willem van de Velde, the Elder's grisaille on canvas. The picture is dated 1657, and resides at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. The picture is quite large (67 inches x 113-3/4 inches).

There are more obvious mistakes in the narrative. On page 15, he says that Jan Evertsen's flagship was the Hollandia. Certainly, this was Evertsen's flagship for most of the First Anglo-Dutch War. However, at Scheveningen, the ship was commanded by Adriaan Banckert (Evertsen's former flag captain), and was sunk (Schetsen V, p.201).

On 24 July, there is a reference that says that a new East Indiaman was being readied for Jan Evertsen (1DW5, page 286).


1DW5--Ed. C.T. Atkinson, The First Dutch War, Vol. V, London, 1911.

Schetsen--Dr. Johan E. Elias, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, 6 volumes, 's-Gravenhage, 1916-1930.

Paintings--M. S. Robinson, Paintings of the Willem Van De Veldes , 2 volumes, London, 1990.

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