Wednesday, May 31, 2006

More about the Prinses Roijael Maria from Carl Stapel

Carl Stapel passed on the following additional information about the Prinses Roijael Maria (which I have slightly edited):

The ship [Prinses Roijael Maria] was taken in June 1652 in an English harbor. Its captain was Joost van Colster son of captain Willem Joosten van Colster. Joost van Colster commanded the Gelderland in the relief squadron to Brazil with Witte de With.

According to the notaries, Joost van Colster left the navy in July 1652 and became a merchant...!

The Prinses Roijael Maria

By the early 1640's, the Aemilia was out of service, due in part to hard service in battle in 1639 and damage from a storm while carrying Queen Henrietta Marie from England to the Netherlands in February 1643. Many people wanted to repair the Aemilia, due in part to her significant role in greatly damaging the Spanish Armada of 1639. Jan Salomonszoon, the shipbuilder, preferred to build a new ship in her place. This eventually resulted in the construction of the Brederode, which in May 1645 became Witte de With's flagship. In the Aemilia's place, Tromp moved his flag to the new, but much smaller ship, the Prinses Roijael Maria. Her dimensions, in Amsterdam feet were 124ft x 29.5ft x 13ft. Dr. Elias says that she carried 32 guns in 1643. She carried 34 guns, in 1652, prior to her capture in port, by the English. Her lower tier were mainly 12pdr, while the Aemilia carried 36pdr, 24pdr, and 18pdr on the lower tier (4-36pdr, 11-24pr,12-18pdr, 21-12pdr, and 9-6pdr, altogether). The Prinses Roijael Maria was taken by the English at the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War, which caught some Dutch warships in English ports, where they were seized. The Prinses Roijael Maria eventually served as the Princess Maria in the English service.

Tuesday, May 30, 2006

By 1664, Amsterdam had discarded their aversion to large ships

By the time that the new construction program, prior to the Second Anglo-Dutch War, had commenced in 1664, Amsterdam had accepted that larger ships were necessary to be able to effectively fight the English. Their ships were often still armed with a mixed armament on the lower deck, due to their not having solved their gun supply problem. Frank Fox says that by the time of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch had acquired sufficient guns to be able to more heavily arm their ships. I do not have much information about this issue, but I do know that Michiel De Ruyter's flagship, the Zeven Provinciën, carried a complete lower tier of 36pdrs in the Third War.

Monday, May 29, 2006

Many of the ships in Witte de With's squadron that went to Brazil were gone before 1652

Witte de With's squadron that went to Brazil in late 1647 and early 1648 were gone before 1652:
Adm Ship Name      Guns  Initial Commander       Fate
M   Brederode        49  Witte Cornelisz de With Sunk in 1658 at Battle of the Sound
M   Gelderland       40  Joost van Coulster      Not mentioned after 1659
M   Dolphijn         32  Job Forant              Last mentioned in 1657
A   Huis van Nassau  40  Govert Forens           Damaged on 28 Sept 1648
                                                  captured by Portuguese
A   Haarlem          36  Matthijs Gillissen      Last mentioned in 1666
A   Utrecht          32  Jacob Paulusz Cort      Exploded on 28 Sept 1648
A   (Groot)Zutphen   30  Cornelis Toelast        Last mentioned in 1665
A   Overijssel       28  Dirck Crijnen Verveen   Sold upon return
N   Eendracht        41  Paulus Coolen           Burnt in action in 1676
N   Wapen van Nassau 38  Lieven de Zeeuw         Gone before 1652
N   Witte Eenhoorn   30  Jan Gijzen              Last mentioned in 1655
N   Koning David     34* Willem Claesz Ham       Gone before 1652
A   Gewapende Ruyter 36  Boetius Schaeff         In June 1652, captured by English
Of 13 ships, including the Portuguese prize, 5 were lost or gone before 1652. Several had long service, such as the Noorderkwartier ship Eendracht.

Sunday, May 28, 2006

Ships needing repairs after the Battle of Portland in 1653

I have a number of documents dating from March 1653, following the Battle of Portland (or the Three Days' Battle, as the Dutch call it) that list ships that had been at the battle, had survived in the Dutch service, and now needed repairs. These are the ships mentioned:
Sint Maria
The ships named are all Directors' ships. They seem to have been ships hired by different Directors. The Lam reference could be one of two ships. One hired by the Middelburg Directors or one hired by the Amsterdam Directors. The Burgh is probably the Rotterdam Directors' ship. The three pages date from 11 March, 14 March, and 22 March 1653, and are from the Nationaal Archief. Rick van Velden found them for me in September 2003.

Saturday, May 27, 2006

English Captain: John Blythe

John Blythe served in the Commonwealth navy. in 1654, he commanded the 5th Rate Recovery. In 1655, he commanded the prize Hound (36 guns). In 1656, he commanded the 6th Rate Martin (12 guns). From 1656 until 1657, he commanded the 4th Rate Dover (40 guns). Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966
  3. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898

Friday, May 26, 2006

The list of ships at Vlissingen in July 1653: the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier

According to the list of ships at Vlissingen in July 1653, there were 10 ships in the service of the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier at the Battle of the Gabbard. Number 65 was apparently Pieter Florissen's flagship, the Monnikendam (36 guns). Number 72 was captured by the English. This must be the Stad van Medemblick (26 guns, or perhaps 30 guns by 1653) commanded by Pieter Schellinger. This ship was one of the 36 cruisers funded in 1651 by the Staten Generaal.

Thursday, May 25, 2006

East India Company ships from the Amsterdam Chamber in July 1653

The July 1653 list of ships includes three ships from the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC. One of them is listed as being unready. I believe that these are the ships in question:
Ship            Commander               Guns Crew Length  Beam Hold
Gerechtigheid   Evert Pietersz Swart
Mercurius       Pieter de Bitter        40   200  123ft   30ft 12ft
Huis van Nassau Jan Pietersz van Strijp

Another candidate is the Vrede (although she may have been purchased)

Vrede           Pieter Salomonszoon     40   200  131.5ft 32.5ft
I am not absolutely sure about the Huis van Nassau, so as usual, there is a great deal of uncertainty.

Wednesday, May 24, 2006

The Dolphijn in 1629 and in 1633

I have previously written about the Rotterdam ship Dolphijn in the year 1629. Four years later, she was still commanded by Willeboort Leendertszoon. In 1629, she carried the following guns:
2-brass half-cartouwen 24pdr
2-brass chambered 24pdr
2-brass 12pdr ("veltstucken")
8-iron 8pdr
4-iron 6pdr
2-iron 5pdr
2-iron 4pdr
5-steenstukken with 10 chambers
In 1633, she was armed with the following guns:
2-brass half-cartouwen 24pdr
2-brass chambered 24pdr
2-brass 12pdr
8-iron   8pdr
4-iron   6pdr
4-iron   5pdr
2-iorn   4pdr
5-steenstukken with 5 chambers
As you can see, the armament changed very little from 1629 to 1633. I had expected that there would be no change, but that is not the case. The 1633 information is from the Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1633, while the 1629 information is from the Staet for 1629.

Tuesday, May 23, 2006

The mystery remains as to why Vreugdenhil missed so many ships from 1652 to 1653

I had only known that there were a large number of ships not mentioned in Vreugdenhil, from 1652 to 1653, from seeing the list translated and republished in The First Dutch War, Vol.I (from the Hollandsche Mercurius for 1652). From the published sources, there many ships for which I could not apply names. Only after Jan Glete sent me a copy of his notes and then Rick van Velden, at the Nationaal Archief found documents for me, was I able to give names to most of the ships in that list (from about June 1652). It is harder to understand, as Dr. Johan E. Elias, in Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen mentioned by name, and sometimes included the captain's name, for some of the ships in the service of the Amsterdam Directors. This was quite a bit before Vreugdenhil compiled his list. Dr. Ballhausen made no attempt, apparently, to use anything but published sources, so his book is even less useful, in that respect. Of course, Dr. Ballhausen did use some very obscure published sources, and he did supply names of ships and information not published elsewhere, except for the original source. Apparently, Vreugdenhil used Dr. Ballhausen's book for part of his list, although Vreugdenhil seems to have been savvier than Dr. Ballhausen.

Monday, May 22, 2006

More Directors' ships

This is somewhat redundant, but I have firmed up in my mind those who employed the ship Kameel, commanded by Joost Bulter. I will also list the Harlingen (Friesland) Directors' ships. One was apparently retired after the Battle of the Gabbard, and captains were changed.
Adm      Ship Name         Guns Crew  Commander
Gro-Dir  Kameel            42         Joost Bulter
Ha-Dir   Vergulde Pelicaen 28   100   Adriaan Heeres Cleyntien
Ha-Dir   Sint Vincent      28   105   Andries Douweszoon Pascaert
After the Battle of the Gabbard, Andries Douwesz Pascaert was dismissed from the service. Adriaan Heeres Cleyntien commanded the Sint Vincent until her loss in the storm in early November 1653. Joost Bulter's ship, of course, was sunk at the Battle of the Gabbard, by gunfire. Joost Bulter was killed in the battle. The July 1653 list of ships at Vlissingen (and Goeree and the Texel) indicates that the Kameel was a ship in the service of the Admiralty of Friesland, but that seems to be not the case. Also note that most sources don't list the guns or armament of the Sint Vincent. The Vergulde Pelicaen is not mentioned by name in any published source. A handwritten list from September 1652 supplies the names and captains of both Harlingen Directors' ships. Hendrick de Raedt's pamphlet supplies the guns and crew information. We were able to confirm Dr. Ballhausen's giving 42 guns as the Kameel's armament, as I have Richard Badiley's biography, where that information is listed.

Sunday, May 21, 2006

New construction in Zeeland between 1653 and July 1654

As part of the new construction program initiated during the First Anglo-Dutch War, seven new ships had come into service with the Admiralty of Zeeland between 1653 and July 1654. I have based this list upon the appendix in Vol.I of J. C. De Jonge's book, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen. This is the list, with ship names applied, based on the Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654:
Ship name            Guns Crew Length Beam Hold  Commander
Zeelandia              50  95  136    34   13.75 Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge
Utrecht                40  95  134    33   13.5 
Vlissingen             40  95  130    34   13.5  Frans Mangelaer
Middelburg             40  90  130    34   13.5  Cornelis Evertsen de Oude
Kampveere              40  90  130    34   13.5  Pieter Gorcum
Dordrecht              40  90  130    34   13.5
  1. H.A. van Foreest and R.E.J. Weber, De Vierdaagse Zeeslag 11-14 Juni 1666, 1984
  2. J. C. De Jonge, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen, Vol.I, 1858
  3. Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654, 1654
  4. A. Vreugdenhil, Ships of the United Netherlands 1648-1702, 1938

Saturday, May 20, 2006

English Captain: Daniel Baker

Daniel Baker served in the Commonwealth navy. In 1656, he commanded the Hopewell pink (20 guns). From 1656 until 1657, he commanded the Lizard (20 guns), a Royalist prize. Sadly, neither the ships nor Daniel Baker are otherwise mentioned in sources available to me. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966

Friday, May 19, 2006

I appears that I have solved the cross browser issues in this blog

I have been particularly unhappy with how this blog appeared in Internet Explorer. Even in Firefox, there were "issues". I seem to have solved them. The only question is how the blog would appear on a lower resolution display. I was forced to do some "absolute positioning" with CSS to get an acceptable appearance.

The Noorderkwartier ships from the July 1654 list

De Jonge has a list in an appendix to Vol.I of his six volume work that lists Dutch ships in service in 1654. This list seems closely aligned with the Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654, dated in July 1654. There is some additional information in De Jonge's list, as he supplies lengths for some Zeeland ships beyond what I found in my copies of the Staet. I thought it must be useful to try and fill in parts of the list with actual names (De Jonge omitted ship names). Here is my attempt for the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier:
Jozua                  50  95  136 34   14 
Gelderland             50  95  136 34   14

Drie Helden Davids     46  90  130 34   13.5
Caleb                  46  90  130 32.5 12.5
Jupiter                46  90  130 32   12 

Eendracht              41  90  130 32   12

Monnikendam            38  80  120 28.5 11 

Alckmaer               32  90  130 32   12   Reynst Cornelisz Sevenhuysen

Wapen van Enkhuijsen   34  80              
Eenhoorn               30  80  125 29        Jan Jansz Heck
Enkhuijsen             30  80  116 26.5 10   Claes Backer

Casteel van Medemblick 28  80  120 27   11   Adriaan Houttuijn
Enkhuijsen             28  80  116 26.5 10   Dirck Gerritsz Pomp
Jonge Prins            28  80  120 28   11.5 Cornelis Barendsz Slordt
Wapen van Monnikendam  28  75  116 26.5 10   Arent Dirckszoon
Prinses Roijael        26  75  125 30   11.5 Captain (Willem?) Ham
Hoorn                  26  75  116 26.5 10 
  1. James C. Bender, unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships 1600-1700", 2005
  2. J. C. De Jonge, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen, Vol.I, 1858
  3. Staet van Oorlogh te Water for the year 1654, 1654

Thursday, May 18, 2006

Cafe Press has the canvas bags in stock

I have been waiting for this: Cafe Press has the canvas bags in stock. My wife likes the Brederode "photo", in particular:

The nine Zeeland Directors' ships

Zeeland as allocated nine ships from the 50 Directors' ships funded in 1652. Again, we have a list of nine ships from the Hollandsche Mercurius list, reprinted in The First Dutch War, Vol.I and also from Hendrick de Raedt's pamphlet. This is the list:
kapitein Jan le Sage                Mi-Dir Vergulde Haan   30 105
kapitein Jacob Adriaansz Penssen    Mi-Dir Gouden Leeuw    30 110
kapitein Johannes van Regermorter   Mi-Dir ?               30 105
kapitein Bastiaan Tuynemans         Mi-Dir Sint Laurens    30 105*
kapitein Jan Thyssen                Vl-Dir Witte Lam       32 110
kapitein Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge Vl-Dir Vlissingen      26 110
kapitein Allert Janszoon            Vl-Dir Dubbele Arend   28 110
kapitein Cornelis Rocusensz Fincen  Zi-Dir Liefde          34 110
kapitein Jan Olivierszoon           Ve-Dir Wapen ter Veere 38 125
The Sint Laurens was captured by the English on 29 May 1652, in the opening battle of the war, near Dover and the Downs. The issues again revolve around the existence of at least one other ship that was known to be Zeeland Directors' ships. By July 1652, Leendert den Haen commanded the Haes in 't Veld (30 guns and a crew of 108 ships). This ship seems to have been the one later commanded by Bastiaan Centsen. The exact timing is unclear, but by the Battle of Dungeness, Bastiaan Centsen was captain of the Haes in 't Veld. He took the English ship Hercules after the battle.

Wednesday, May 17, 2006

Carl Stapel has a really good list of Dutch ships in service before the start of the First Anglo-Dutch War

Carl Stapel shared with me his list of Dutch ships in service before the start of the First Anglo-Dutch War. Right now, the list primarily covers Directors' ships. His list for the Rotterdam or Maze Directors is quite good:
Adm   Ship name    Guns Crew Commander
M-Dir Burcht         28 105  Adriaen de Zeeuw 
M-Dir Jonas          36 125  Johan de Lieffde  
M-Dir Meerman        30 120  Jacob Cleijdijck 
M-Dir Prins                  Symon Cornelisz van der Meer 
M-Dir Prins te Paard 38 110  Corstiaen Corstiaenszoon   
M-Dir Sint Andries   26 105  Ruth Jacobsz Buys    
M-Dir Sint Pieter    29 110  Isaac de Jongh
I thought that his information for Adriaen de Zeeuw makes a good deal of sense. I suspect that his name for Ruth Jacobsz Buys' ship is derived from me, and that I had just made an estimate, so I would like to find more information to have more confidence in the name of his ship. In any case, I am going forward with the information from Carl's list as my "current working assumption".

Known war losses from the first 24 Amsterdam Directors' ships

Of the first 24 ships hired by the Amsterdam Directors in early March 1652, none were lost during 1652, except for the Prins Maurits. That changed in 1653. These are the ships that were lost and their fate. I have only listed the original captain:
Captain                 Ship           Guns Fate
Abraham van Kampen      Arke Troijnane  28  Sunk at the Battle of Portland
Cornelis Jansz Poort    Kroon Imperiael 34  Sunk at the Battle of Portland
Nicolaes de With        Prins Maurits   34  Wrecked in November 1652
Bartholmeus Rietbeeck   Rooseboom       28  Captured at the Battle of the Gabbard
Stoffel Juriaenszoon    Sint Francisco  28  Captured at the Battle of Portland
Jacob Syverstz Spanheym Elias           34  Captured at the Battle of the Gabbard
Bruyn van Seelst        Groote Liefde   38  Captured at the Battle of Portland
Several of the captured ships saw long service in the English navy, such as the Groote Liefde, which was recaptured by the Dutch at the Battle of Lowestoft, in June 1665.

Tuesday, May 16, 2006

Amsterdam hired ships in March 1653

From my list of ships in service with the Dutch fleet in March 1653, there are the Amsterdam hired ships:
Hired ships

Rank      Name                    Adm/Dir guns Sailors Soldiers Ship
kapitein  Willem van Nieuhoff     A       40   130     20       Aertsengel Michiel
kapitein  Lucas Albertssen?       A       36   130     20       Drie Coningen
kapitein  Adriaan van den Bosch   A       36   130     20       Engel Gabriel
kapitein  Evert Anthonissen       A       32   130     20       Hollandia
kapitein  Albert Claesz de Graeff A       32   100     20       Hollandia            
kapitein  Jacob Troncquois        A       30   100     20       Omlandia             
kapitein  Sijmon van der Aeck?    A       30   100     20       Amsterdam            
kapitein  Jacob Schellinger       A       28   100     20       Venetia              
kapitein  Jacob Janssen Roocher   A       28   100     20       Julius Caesar        
kapitein  Cornelis Janszoon       A       28   100     20       Jupiter              
kapitein  Hendrick Govertszoon    A       28   100     20       Star                 
kapitein  Pieter Tuenisz Bontebotter A    28   100     20       Zwarten Arend        
kapitein  Pieter van Breen        A       28   100     20       Sint Pieter          
kapitein  Sijbrant Jansz Mol      A       28   100     20       Witte Olifant        
kapitein  Meijndert Theunisz OosterwoutA  28   100     20       Salomons Ordeel      
kapitein  Adriaan Rodenhaes       A       28   100     20       Rodenhaes            
kapitein  Pieter Jansz de Vries   A       28   100     20       Suzanna              
kapitein  Harman Sonne            A       28   100     20       Madonna della Vigna  
kapitein  Jan Boermans            A       28   100     20       Prins Willem         
kapitein  Cornelis van Velsen     A       28   100     20       Gelderland           
kapitein  Adriaan van Loenen      A       28   100     20       Goude Reael          
kapitein  Jan ter Stegen          A       28   100     20       Prinses Aemilia      
?         ?                       A       28   100     20       Hoop                 
?         ?                       A       28   100     20       Engel                
kapitein  Hendrik Adriaanszoon    A       26    90     20       Sampson              
?         ?                       A       24    80     20       Goude Leeuw          
?         ?                       A       24    80     20       Patientia            
?         ?                       A       24    80     20       Keyser               
?         ?                       A       24    80     20       Hoop                 
kapitein  Hillebrant Jeroenszoon  A       24    80     20       Hollandsche Tuin     
kapitein  Dirk Pietersz Heertjens A       18    70     15       Windhond             
The ships with unknown captains were paid off sometime before this, or around this time and their captains were reassigned to replace captains who were dismissed from the service. A feature of this list is that there seems to be no room for a mystery ship, such as that commanded by Abraham van der Hulst in 1652 (a ship of 26 guns). That was why it seemed that he might have commanded the Sampson (26 guns), later commanded by Hendrick Adriaanszoon. Another question is if the Hoop (28 guns) listed here was the ship commanded by Boëtius Schaeff at the Battle of the Gabbard, when he was killed.

Monday, May 15, 2006

The 36 Cruisers funded in 1651

The first really substantial preparation for the coming war by the Dutch was the funding of 36 cruisers to add to the 40 ships funded after the Peace of Münster in 1648. We know the identity of the 7 Noorderkwartier ships, thanks to the document included in Vol.IV of The First Dutch War:
Prinses Roijael, 34 guns     Captain Albert Corneliszoon 't Hoen crew 140
Jonge Prins, 28 guns         Captain Cornelis Barentszoon Slordt crew 115
Eendracht, 40 guns           Captain Jacob de Boer               crew 140
Alckmaar, 28 guns            Captain Jan Warnaertszoon Capelman  crew 95
Monnikendam, 36 guns         Captain Pieter Florissen            crew 138
Wapen van Enkhuizen, 34 guns Captain Gerrit Femssen              crew 110
Stad van Medemblick, 30 guns Captain Pieter Schellinger          crew 110
As for the others, we suspect that ships that were completed from about 1650 until 1652 fall into that bucket:
Admiralty of Amsterdam

Vrede, 44 guns               Commandeur Gideon de Wildt (1650)
Vrijheid, 44 guns            Commandeur Augustijn Balck (1651)
Overijssel, 28 guns          Captain Jan van Campen (1650)
Campen, 38 guns              Joris van der Zaan (1652)
Jaarsveld, 44 guns           Joris van Cats (1651)
Maagd van Enkhuizen, 34 guns Cornelis Tromp (purchased in 1651)

Admiralty of Zeeland

Amsterdam (1651)
Ter Goes (1652)
Zeeridder (1652)
The rest must have been commissioning of existing ships, like the Noorderkwartier ships. At this point, unless we can find more information, we cannot do any better than guess.

Sunday, May 14, 2006

The planned Dutch ships for the First Anglo-Dutch War

I have only been able to find the allotments of Dutch ships for the First Anglo-Dutch War from H. T. Colenbrander's book of documents from foreign archives:
Forty ships of 1648

Rotterdam        8 ships
Amsterdam       16 ships
Zeeland          8 ships
Noorderkwartier  8 ships

Total           40 ships

Thirty-Six ships of 1651

Rotterdam        7 ships
Amsterdam       14 ships
Zeeland          7 ships
Noorderkwartier  7 ships
Friesland        1 ship

Total           36 ships

One Hundred Ships of 1652

Rotterdam       16-1/2 ships
Amsterdam       33 ships
Zeeland         16-1/2 ships
Noorderkwartier 16-1/2 ships
Friesland       16-1/2 ships

Total          100 ships

Fifty Directors’ ships of 1652

Rotterdam                      7 ships
Amsterdam                     24 ships
Zeeland                        9 ships
Cities of the Noorderkwartier  7 ships
Friesland                      2 ships
Groningen                      1 ship

Total                         50 ships

The first thirty ship building program

Rotterdam        5 ships
Amsterdam       10 ships
Zeeland          5 ships
Noorderkwartier  5 ships
Friesland        5 ships

Total           30 ships
The fractional ship numbers just make the list less useful. Sources:
  1. H. T. Colenbrander, Bescheiden uit vreemde archieven omtrent de groote Nederlandsche zeeoorlogen 1652-1676, 1919

Saturday, May 13, 2006

Directors' ships from later in 1653

Dr. Elias, in volumes V and VI of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen identifies some Directors' ships that were in service later in 1653 (some of them were lost in the storm in early November 1653):
  • Burgh, Hendrick Andriaenszoon Glas, Rotterdam Directors (13 August 1653)
  • Catarina (28 guns), Jacob Janszoon Coppe, Amsterdam Directors (30 January 1653)
  • Halve Maen (30 guns), Hendrik Pieterszoon, Edam Directors (June 1653)
  • Hollandsche Tuin (32 guns), Joris Janszoon Block, Amsterdam Directors (28 January 1653)
  • Keurvorst van Keulen (34 guns), Amsterdam Directors (4 April 1653)
  • Koning David (28 guns), Captain Vogelsang, Amsterdam Directors (4 April 1653)
  • Koning Radboud, Jan Rootiers, Medemblick Directors (9 November 1653)
  • Leeuwin, Claes Janszoon, Middelburg Directors (21 May 1653)
  • Luipaard, Cornelis Tiebij, some Zeeland Directors (9 November 1653)
  • Moor, 34 guns and a crew of 108 men, Adriaen Cornelisz van Ackersloot, Amsterdam Directors (28 January 1653)
  • Moorin (28 guns), Cornelis Corneliszoon Jol, Amsterdam Directors (28 January 1653)
  • Pelikaan (or Gulden Pelikaan) (28 guns), Barend Tijmenszoon Soudaen, Amsterdam Directors (18 March 1653)
  • Purmerland, Andries Sijbrantszoon, Amsterdam Directors (19 July 1653)
  • Samson (28 guns) (27 January 1653)
  • Schacht den Harculus, 28 guns, Amsterdam Directors (4 April 1653)
  • Sint Johannes (28 guns), assumed to be an Amsterdam Directors' ship (8 February 1653)
  • Sint Matheeus, Cornelis Laurenszoon, Amsterdam Directors (June 1653)
  • Sint Pieter (28 guns) (10 January 1653)
  • Sint Pieter, Simon Corneliszoon, Rotterdam Directors (13 August 1653)
  • Vergulde Zon (28 guns and a crew of 108 men), Jacob Claeszoon Duijm, Enkhuizen Directors (not the Monnikendam Directors, apparently) (1652 and 1653)
  • Walvisch, 30 guns and a crew of 110 men, Abraham Verleth, Amsterdam Directors (perhas 17 August 1653)
There is ambiguity about several of the ships. For example, was the Halve Maen hired by the Edam Directors or Monnikendam Directors? Was the Zon, commanded by Jacob Claesz Duijm, hired by the Enkhuizen Directors or the Edam Directors? There are some references from July 1653 that are different from the other references. The Vergulde Zon is perhaps inconsistent with the rest, as she was a ship hired in 1653, but her situation was ambiguous, and it seemed worth clarifying the record. The Vergulde Zon fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, in June 1653, and was taken by the English. One positive thing is that Vol.V of The First Dutch War, agrees with the Directors for the two ambiguous ships.

Friday, May 12, 2006

I am still looking at alternatives for publishing reference material

Frank Fox has been encouraging me to get at least some of my research into print. Because of the presumed limited audience for 17th Century naval history and ship data, I have thought that a publishing-on-demand solution would be what was needed. Cafe Press, who provides our "gear" and hosts our store with my various pieces of art on them, also does publishing on demand. They have a more limited set of options than Lulu, started by the founder of "Red Hat", the Linux company. there are also other options, for a cost, such as Xlibris.

Some of my projects are the sort of thing that the Society for Nautical Research has published in the past. Frank Fox says that there is no funding for anything from them, these days. Some of my projects that are pretty far progressed include:

  1. Dutch Naval Officers: 1600-1720
  2. English Naval Officers: 1642-1720
  3. Dutch Ships in Various Operations in the First Anglo-Dutch War
  4. Dutch Ships: 1620-1720
  5. The First Anglo-Dutch War
Other longer-term projects include English translations of some books:
  1. Johan E. Elias, De Vlootbouw in Nederland 1596-1655, 1933
  2. Jodocus Hondius, Onstelde-Zee, Oft Zee-Daden, 1654

Thursday, May 11, 2006

English Captain: Thomas Wright

Thomas Wright served in the Commonwealth navy. In 1652, he commanded the hired ship John and Elizabeth (26 guns). He may have commanded her at the Battle of Plymouth on 26 August 1652. From 1653 until 1655, he commanded the Heartsease (36 guns). He fought in the Battle of the Gabbard on 12 and 13 June 1653. He was assigned to James Peacock's division in the Red Squadron. He very likely fought in the Battle of Scheveningen on 10 August 1653 (all these dates are new style). From 1656 until 1660, he commanded the Fame. The Fame must be the captured French Renommée, which eventually served a fireship. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Dutch ships and captains

So, given how much we have learned, what Dutch ships are there where know about the ship and not the captain, or know about the captain and not his ship's name? This is the current list, as far as I can tell. Hopefully, I have not overlooked too many:
Adm    Ship                  Guns Crew  Captain
Z      ?                     26   100   Adriaan Banckert (1652)
Z      ?                     18   100   Lambert Bartelszoon (1652)
Ho-Dir ?                     28   105   Pieter Adriaansz van Blocker (1652)
N      ?                     ?     ?    Jan Bourgoigne (1652)
Z      ?                     ?     ?    Daniel Cornelisz Brackman (1652)
R-Dir  ?                     26   105   Ruth Jacobsz Buys (1652)
Z      ?                     ?     ?    Jan Duijm (1653)
A      ?                     26   100   Abraham van der Hulst (1652)
?      ?                     ?     ?    Andries Kroeger (December 1652)
En-Dir ?                     28   110   Gijsbert Malcontent (1652)
N      ?                     ?     ?    Herman Munnekes (December 1652)
Mi-Dir ?                     30   105   Johannes Regermorter (1652)
Z      ?                     ?     ?    Jacob Wolfertszoon (1652)
A      Achilles              32    ?    ?(from 1630, but July 1654)
?      Arke Noach            24    80   ?(22 July 1652)
?-Dir  Colburg               ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
?-Dir  Harderin              ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
?-Dir  Harderwijk            ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
?-Dir  Herenberg             ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
A-Dir  Keurvorst van Keulen  34    ?    ?(4 April 1653)
?-Dir  Samson                28    ?    ?(27 January 1653)
En-Dir Sampson van Enkhuizen 28   100*  ?(22 July 1652)
A-Dir  Schacht den Harculus  28    ?    ?(4 April 1653)
?      Sint Jan Baptist      22    80   ?(22 July 1652)
?-Dir  Sint Johannes         28    ?    ?(8 February 1653)
?-Dir  Sint Pieter           28    ?    ?(10 January 1653)
?-Dir  Wesp                  ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
?-Dir  Zutphen               ?     ?    ?(30 March 1652)
A      Zwaan                 28   100*  ?(22 July 1652)

Monday, May 08, 2006

Some interesting tidbits from Dr. Ballhausen about ships at the Battle of Scheveningen

While Dr. Ballhausen seems to have not used any archival documents, he did do a comprehensive review of the published literature, much of it quite obscure. He often makes assessments that I would not accept. I will list some interesting information about ships and captains from the list for Scheveningen (Katwijk-aan-Zee):
Adm    Captain                      Ship                   Guns  Crew
       Jan Bonkier                  Zeepaard               ?     ?
A      Cornelis Cornelisz Jol       Moorin                 28    105
Z      Cornelis Evertsen de Oude    Wapen van Zeeland      26-28 130
                                     or Zeeuwsche Leeuw
Mi-Dir ?                            Antonius Bonavetura    36-38 110
A      Pieter Teunissen Bontebotter Zwarte Arend           28    100
F      Frederick Stellingwerff      Zevenwolden            38    135
F      Lieutenant Hasselgants       Sara                   24     85
Ha-Dir Ariaan Heeres Kleintje       Sint Vincent           28    100
Vl-Dir Michiel De Ruyter            Witte Lam              40    150
        flag captain Gillis Janszoon
Mi-Dir Markus Hartman               Gekroonde Liefde       36    145
A-VOC  Jacob Swart                  Gerechtigheid          45*   200*
WIC?   Captain Ezechiel             Gecroende Haes         ?     ?
A      Jan Rootjes                  Raadhuis van Medemblik ?     ?
  (or is it the Koning Radbout or Radbout van Medemblik of the
     Medemblick Directors, as Dr. Elias says)
A      Captain Dirick (Dircksz?)    Zeepaardstoet van      ?     ?
N      Reynst Cornelisz Zevenhuisen Mars                   45*   200*
I have made a few corrections to the information.

Sunday, May 07, 2006

More ships which fought in the Battle of Scheveningen

From Dr. Elias, in Vol.V of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, we know more ships that fought in the Battle of Scheveningen. Some of these duplicate what is in other lists:
Adm    Ship            Guns Crew Commander
A-Dir  Blauwe Arend    28   110  Hendrik Claesz van der Streeck
A-VOC  Huis van Nassau ?    ?    Jan Pietersz van Strijp
NQ     Peereboom       24    80  Tijs Tijmansz Peereboom
Mi-VOC Zwarte Bul      ?    ?    Willem Folkertszoon
A      Groningen       42   140  Gillis Thyssen Campen
A      Westfriesland   28   140  Hendrik Huyskens
A      Zutphen         26   120  Hillebrandt Jeroenszoon
A      Gouden Reael    28   110  Adriaan van Loenen
A-Dir  Moor            34   108  Adriaan Cornelisz van Ackersloot
A-Dir  Walvisch        30   110  Abraham Verleth
NQ     Prins Maurits   32   110  Cornelis Taenman (sunk)
NQ     Monnikendam     38   138  Pieter Florissen
R      Rosencrans      42   ?    Jan de Haes (partially burnt)
A      Jonas           ?    ?    Joris de Caulerij (Colerij)
F      Graaf Willem    12   ?    Jan Coenders
A      Brak            18   70   Poppe Brinckers (Binckes)
Z      Vlissingen      40   ?    Jan Evertsen, flag captain
                                 Jan Pouwelszoon
A      Vrijheid        46   170  Witte de With, flag captain
                                 Abraham van der Hulst
R-Dir  Sint Pieter     ?    ?    Simon Corneliszoon van der Meer
R-Dir  Burgh           ?    ?    Hendrik Adriaansz Glas
Z      Liefde          ?    ?    Jan Thyssen
Z      Hollandia       38   160  Adriaan Bankert (sunk)
Z      Westcappel      28   110  Claes Janszoon Sanger (sunk)
Z      Eendracht        24    98  Andries Fortuijn (burnt)
Z      Zeeuwsche Leeuw  30   120  Cornelis Evertsen de Oude (sunk)
A      Hollandia        32   120  Evert Antonissen (sunk)
A      Dolphijn         32   100  Gerbrand Schatter (sunk)
A      Omlandia         ?    ?    Maarten Schaeff (sunk)
F      Zevenwolden      38   135  Frederick Stellingwerff (sunk)
A-VOC  Mercurius        40   200  Pieter de Bitter (sunk)
Z      Witte Lam        40   145  Michiel de Ruyter
NQ     Hoorn            28   105  Pieter Aldertszoon
R      Gorcum           30   131  Willem Adriaanz Warmont (killed)
R      Roskam           26   105  Corstiaen Eldertszoon
R      Brederode        54   270  Maarten Tromp (killed), flag captain
                                   Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer
I have taken some of the data from my unpublished list of Dutch ships and captains. Between all the lists, we have a good number of the ships that fought at Scheveningen. There is also the list of captains from Michiel De Ruyter's squadron, for example. The latter has one error, because Anthony Foppenthey (or Fappenlain) was Hendrik Huysken's lieutenant on the Westfriesland.

Saturday, May 06, 2006

So what does the July 1653 list indicate about the Directors?

The July 1653 list has relevant information about the Directors and which ships were taken at the Battle of the Gabbard:

Directors of Edam

  • one ship was captured
Directors of Monnikendam
  • one ship was captured
  • The other ship was a great ship, which was also very good. The ship was not ready for service in war, however.

No ships are listed for the Directors of Enkhuizen.

The Hoorn Directors have one ship listed:

  • Not ready for service in war. The ship has sand ballast.

Issues about captains, ships, and who they served

There seem to be some inconsistencies about which captain and ship served which Directors. On page 94 of Vol.V of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, Jacob Duym is said to have served the Edam Directors and commanded the Zon (Vergulde Zon), but in Hendrik de Raedt's pamphlet and in Aitzema (page 822, Vol.III of Saken van Staet in Oorlogh in ende omtrent de Vereenigte Nederlanden) he is said to have been in the service of the Enkhuizen Directors. In the same reference in Aitzema, Hendrick Pieterszoon is said to have commanded a ship, the Man van Edam, an Edam Directors' ship. The Man van Edam must refer to the Maan, or Halve Maan, which was captured by the English at the Battle of the Gabbard. Again, Dr. Elias, in Schetsen, writes that Hendrick Pieterszoon was in the service of the Monnikendam Directors. I found the page in Aitzema because Dr. Ballhausen referred to it, in reference to his list for the Battle of the Gabbard, where he mentioned the Man van Edam, commanded by Hendrick Pieterszoon.

Ships we think that we can identify in the July 1653 list of ships at Vlissingen

There are a few ships in the July 1653 list of ships lying at Vlissingen that are explicitly named. There are also a good number that we can identify from the context:
List No. Adm    Name         Guns Crew Commander
13       A      Gelderland     28 100  Cornelis van Velsen-blown up
47       M      Brederode      54 250  Lt-Admiral Tromp-most ready of all
65       Ed-Dir Vergulde Star  28 108  Jacob Claesz Duijm-captured
66       N      Monnikendam    38 138  Pieter Florissen-ship 
                                             of the commandeur
72       N      Stad Medemblik 30 110  Pieter Schellinger-captured
76       Mo-Dir Halve Maan     30 110  Hendrik Pieterszoon-captured
77       Mo-Dir Zwarte Beer    32 115  Jan Cornelisz Oly
87       Z      Neptunus       28 134  Adriaan Jansz den Oven-captured
100      Mi-VOC Zwarte Bul     ?  ?    Willem Folkertszoon
101      F      Zevenwolden    38 135  Frederick Stellingwerff
102      F      Sara           24  85  Luitenant Hasselgants-unready fluit
103      F      Westergo       28  98  Tijmen Claeszoon-captured
104      F      Kameel         42   ?  Joost Bulter-sunk
105      Ha-Dir Sint Vincent   28 105  Ariaan Heeres Cleijntien
From other sources, we can fill in more ships, but not by list number.

Friday, May 05, 2006

Perhaps this might be of interest to others

I have been doing more research about the Dutch fishery protection squadron that was captured or sunk on 22 July 1652:

I am less sure of the mappings between the complete list of captains, ships, and admiralties:

Ship              Guns Crew Captain            Adm  References
Paulus (Sint Paul)24   80   Dirk van Dongen    M    1DW4,p.383,Vreug 194
Waterhond         24   80   Renout Venhuijsen  M    1DW1, p.383, Vreug 213
Kalmar Sleutel    24   80   Dirk Vijch         M    1DW1,p.383, Vreug 141
Wapen van Holland 30  110   Herman Munnekes    N    1DW4,p.314,Vreug 208,
                                                    1DW1 p.383
Adam en Eva       24   80   Jan Heck           N    1DW4, p.314, Vreug 91

(from The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, page 314, this appears to be a ship hired by the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier, despite what Vreugdenhil says. The Adam en Eva is listed in a group of Noorderkwartier ships on page 314 of The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, as I wrote.

Ship               Gun Crew   Captain          Adm  References
Sampson van Hoorn   24   80   Willem Ham       N    1DW1,p.383,1DW4,p.313,
                                                    Vreug 182
Sampson van
Enkhuizen           28  100                    En-Dir? 1DW1,p.383,
                                                      Vreug 181
Land van Beloften   24   80   Jan Noblet       N    1DW4,p.314,Vreug 146
Marcus Curtius      24   80   Hendrik Kroeger  A    1DW4,p.310,Vreug 153
Juffrouw Catharina  24   80   Dirk Bogaart     A    1DW4,p.310,Vreug 100
Zwaan van Amsterdam 28  100                    A    1DW1,p.383,Vreug 219
Arke Noach          24   80                    A    1DW1,p.383,Vreug 163
Sint Jan Baptist    22   80                    A    1DW1,p.383,Vreug 188

I had thought that this might have been one of the squadron of possibly 15 ships, but this was taken by James Peacock in October 1652. Vreugdenhil had listed the Morgenstar (Morgenster) as being a fishery protection ship

Ship              Guns Crew Captain            Adm  References
Morgenstar        20   80                      ?    Vreug, p.160
1DW1 = The First Dutch War, Vol.I
1DW4 = The First Dutch War, Vol.IV
Vreug = Vreugdenhil's list from 1938
A = Admiralty of Amsterdam
M = Admiralty of the Maze
N = Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier
En-Dir = Enkhuizen Directors

Thursday, May 04, 2006

Marco Schuffelen keeps adding new, good stuff

I have been remiss in not checking Marco Schuffelen's site more frequently. He now has a page called "Everyday Dutch". As I continue to struggle to learn more Dutch, and to learn to speak and understand spoken Dutch, I need this kind of material. I can read a good deal of Dutch, at least if the topic is 17th Century Dutch naval and maritime history. Since I want to be visiting the Netherlands to research, I would like to have some basic facility with the spoken language. His main site (the new one) "Hear Dutch Here" has the cool picture: "The Bitter Draught" of the guy who has just tasted something really bad (presumably extremely bitter). This is his old home page.

Wednesday, May 03, 2006

I have taken on a new project: to transcribe and translate Witte de With's journal for 1 October to 5 November 1658

Now that I have Witte de With's journal from 1 October to 5 November 1658, I need to transcribe and translate it. I suspect that the contents will be of some historical interest. They chronicle the last month of Vice-Admiral Witte de With's life, at least from a professional perspective.

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

The journal of Hendrick Ernst de Bertry

I had seen that there was a pamphlet listed in Knuttel's list that contained part of Hendrick Ernst de Bertry's journal. Carl Stapel says that it is for the period of the voyage to the Shetlands in July and August 1652. Captain de Bertry commanded the hired ship Hollandia for the Admiralty of the Maze. I am always hoping to discover more information about Dutch captains and warships in 1652 and 1653.

The journals of Witte de With

When the Brederode was taken by the Swedes at the Battle of the Sound, the ship was in a sinking condition and they "ransacked" the ship. For that we may be thankful, as they rescued Vice-Admiral Witte de With's letters and journals. They are in the Swedish archives, with the papers of the Swedish Admiral Wrangel. Carl Stapel had told me about the journals. Prof. Jan Glete, who is in Stockholm, at the university, had seen them, told us about the letterbook. He was disappointed that there were no ship lists, as I am, although I did not really expect to find anything but lists of captains. Those do exist in the journal. Thanks to Ambassador Antoine van Dongen, Dutch Ambassador to Sweden, I have a copy of Witte de With's journal from 1 October to 5 November, 1658. The last date is the last entry in the journal. I find the handwriting very neat and relatively easy to read, although I can only read part of the words, without more details study. There are quite a few lists of captains. This may blow apart one theory of mine, about a certain captain's name. Grove gives the name as Jan Samplon, while Witte de With seems to have written the name as Jan Semplon. After reading more of the journal, I must say that the handwriting is not uniformly neat. Some of it is harder to read, as it might have been written more hastily. I really am grateful for the kindness of the Ambassador in sending me the copies.

Monday, May 01, 2006

English Captain: Matthew Dawson

Matthew Dawson served in the Restoration navy as a fireship commander. In 1672, he commanded the Success fireship (6 guns). In April and May 1672, the Success was attached to the Rear Admiral of the Blue Squadron's division. The Success was sunk in 1673. In 1673, he commanded the Thomas and Edward fireship (6 guns). The Thomas and Edward was sold in 1674. Finally, on 7 May 1678, the King appointed him as captain of the Spanish Merchant fireship (8 guns). The Spanish Merchant was sold in 1686. Oddly enough, the second edition of Anderson's list has missing entries in the index, which is why I used the first edition. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1935
  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903

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