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Thursday, March 31, 2005

My latest book acquistion arrived yesterday

A reader had recommended Luc Eekhout's book Het Admiralenboek: De vlagofficieren van de Nederlandse marine 1382-1991. The copy that arrived yesterday is one I ordered directly from the publisher BV Uitgeverij De Bataafsche Leeuw. I had ordered by email and they sent the book and invoice. I'm hoping that I might make use of the book in my research. If nothing else, there is blogging material on the admirals.

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

English Captain and Admiral: Sir Roger Strickland

Sir Roger Strickland served in the Restoration navy and into the new regime after 1688. In 1661, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 4th Rate Sapphire. In 1662, he served as the lieutenant of the Crown. In 1663, he was moved to the old 4th Rate Providence as lieutenant. After the outbreak of the second war, he became lieutenant of the hired merchantman "Hambrough Merchant" (more creative spelling). Later in 1665, he became the lieutenant of the 2nd Rate Rainbow. Finally, in 1666, he was appointed captain of the Sancta Maria. In 1668, he became captain of the 5th Rate Success. In 1669, he was appointed captain of the 4th Rate Kent. In 1671, he was moved to the Antelope. In 1672, he commanded first the Plymouth and then the 2nd Rate Henry. He fought in the Battle of Solebay, in command of the Plymouth (58 guns), where he was assigned to Sir Joseph Jordan's division. In 1674, the King appointed him as captain of the 4th Rate Dragon. On 5 November 1677, was appointed captain of the 4th Rate Centurion, and then was moved to the 3rd Rate Mary shortly after that, on 10 December 1677. On 1 April 1678, Sir Roger Strickland and Arthur Herbert (captain of the Rupert) captured an Algerine warship. The Rupert did most of the damage, and the arrival of the Mary simply caused the Algerine to strike her flag. In early 1679 (they called it 1678, as it was in January), Sir John Narborough appointed Sir Roger Strickland to command the 4th Rate Bristol. The date was 14 January. He was reappointed to command her by the King on 23 March 1685. Finally, on 14 June 1688, King James II appointed him to command the 3rd Rate Mary. One inflammatory act by the king was to appoint Sir Roger Strickland, as Catholic, to command the fleet. He was eventually demoted, but it was another reason for the coup. By late in the year, the Glorious Revolution occurred, and the new regime came to power. Sources:
  1. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

A short note about English captain Richard Kirby, who was executed for cowardice

One captain who was shot after Admiral Benbow's action in the Caribbean was Richard Kirby. He was appointed captain on 7 February 1690. In 1695, he had been part of a squadron in the Mediterranean Sea that was operating against pirates. At that time, he commanded the Southampton (48 guns). He was part of Vice-Admiral John Benbow's squadron engaged with the French in August 1702. The squadron consisted of the following ships:
  • Defiance, 64 guns crew 445 Richard Kirby
  • Pendennis, 48 guns crew 230 men Thomas Hudson
  • Windsor, 60 guns crew 340 men John Constable
  • Breda, 70 guns crew 460 men Vice-Adm. John Benbow, captain Christopher Fogg
  • Greenwich, 54 guns crew 280 men Cooper Wade
  • Ruby, 48 guns crew 230 men George Walton
  • Falmouth, 48 guns crew 230 men Samuel Vincent
Captains Kirby and Wade were convicted of cowardice and shot. Captain Constable was acquitted of cowardice, but was cashiered from the navy for other deeds. He also was imprisoned. Syrett says that Kirby was executed for cowardice under fire on 16 April 1703. The two guilty captains were sent home before being executed on board the Bristol. Sources:
  1. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

  2. David Syrett, R. L. DiNardo, The Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy 1660-1815, 1994.

Monday, March 28, 2005

English Captain: Arthur Ashby

Arthur Ashby served in the Restoration navy. In 1664, he was lieutenant on the Crown. In 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him to command the Guinea frigate (38 guns). He was killed in action with the Dutch at the St. James's Day Battle on 25 July 1666. He was assigned to Sir Thomas Teddiman's division. Sir Thomas Teddiman was Vice-Admiral of the White. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, March 27, 2005

English Captain: William Finch

William Finch served in the Restoration navy. In 1661, he was appointed to command the 5th Rate Forester. In 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him to command first the Amity and then the Foresight. In the Amity, he fought in the St. James's Day Battle, where he was assigned to Sir Jeremy Smith's division. In 1671, he was appointed to command the Crown (46 guns). He fought in the Battle of Solebay, where he was assigned to the Earl of Sandwich's division. In 1672, he was appointed to command the York (58 guns). In August 1672, he was assigned to Sir John Kempthorne's division. He fought in the First Schooneveld Battle and was killed on 28 May 1673. He was assigned to Sir Edward Spragge's Blue Squadron. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Another two-war veteran: the Exchange

The hired merchantman Exchange fought in both the First and Second Anglo-Dutch Wars. She was built in 1650, and had dimensions of 74ft-9in on the keel and a beam of 28ft-11in. Her burden was 332 tons. She had 9 ports on the lower deck per side. During the First Anglo-Dutch War, the Exchange fought in five battles: the Kentish Knock, Dungeness, Portland, the Gabbard, and Scheveningen. She was hired in January 1665 for service in the second war. She fought in the Battle of Lowestoft. She was meant to be at Bergen, but was prevented from being there by bad weather. She was present for the actions against returning Dutch ships on 3 September and 9 September. She was released in December 1665. In 1665, she had a crew of 170 men and carried 36 guns:
  • Ship's guns: 4-demi-culverins and 14-sakers
  • Navy guns: 8-culverins and 10-demi-culverins
Source:
  1. Frank Fox, "Hired Men-of-War, 1664-7", Part II, The Mariner's Mirror Vol.84 No.2 (May 1998).

Saturday, March 26, 2005

English Captain: Sir John Narborough

I thought it was notable that Sir John Narborough had been Christopher Myngs' lieutenant on the Victory at the Four Days Battle. On the fourth day of the battle, Christopher Myngs tried to get the wind by passing to the south of the whole Dutch fleet. He was beating into the wind when the Dutch recognized what he was doing. The Dutch rear moved to dispute the passage, and Jan De Liefde, in the new Ridderschap attacked the Victory. The two ships passed, almost touching yardarms. Christoper Myngs was shot in the cheeks by a Dutch marksman in the rigging. He stayed in command until he was shot again. He was forcibly taken below and John Narborough was left in command. Christopher Myngs lived for a week after the battle. He was a great loss, as he was an experienced seaman who had served under the Commonwealth. John Narborough steered the disabled Victory to the north so he could repair her rigging. Several van division ships stayed in support, so that the Victory was not disturbed by the Dutch. Source:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

Friday, March 25, 2005

The Earl of Sandwich's division at the Battle of Solebay

If we look at the Earl of Sandwich's division in the Battle of Solebay, we see many names that I have recently written about. I believe that this is the order in which they sailed:
  1. Montagu, 60 guns Thomas Darcy
  2. Falcon, 40 guns (actually, an upgunned 5th Rate) Charles Mountague
  3. Leopard, 54 guns Peter Bowen
  4. Rupert, 66 guns Sir John Holmes
  5. Royal James, 100 guns Earl of Sandwich, Richard Haddock captain
  6. Henry, 74 guns Francis Digby
  7. Edgar, 70 guns John Wetwang
  8. Crown, 46 guns William Finch
He had reasonably strong seconds, with the Rupert and Henry, along with the Edgar right behind her. The Earl should have survived, except for the rampant indiscipline in the Restoration navy. Panicked crew members jumped into his boat, until it was swamped, and he and others were drowned. They eventually found his body washed ashore. They recognized it by the medals. This list is from Corbett's small booklet.

Thursday, March 24, 2005

English Captain: William Davies

William Davies served in the Restoration navy. Pepys lists him as the first William Davies, but Frank Fox calls the other captain William Davis. This William Davies was appointed lieutenant of the 4th Rate Diamond in 1664. By 18 April 1665, he was appointed captain of the Little Unicorn. At the time of the Battle of Lowestoft, the ship was fitting out. He took command of a hired merchantman, the Maryland, on 10 July 1665. He continued in command of her until 11 December 1665. In 1666, he commanded the Dutch prize Zealand. Later, he was appointed to command the hired merchantman Coronation (52 guns). He fought at the St. James's Day Battle on 25 July 1666. Later still, in 1666, he commanded the Guinea frigate. Perhaps the note under William Davis, in Pepys, is mistaken. In 1668, he commanded the 5th Rate Guernsey. In 1669, he commanded the 5th Rate Forester. By 1671, he was appointed to command the Mary Rose. By August 1672, he commanded the 2nd Rate St. George (64 guns) in Richard Beach's division. In 1673, he was appointed to command the 2nd Rate Triumph. In June 1673, he fought in the Schooneveld battles. On 3 December 1674, the King appointed William Davies to command the 4th Rate Foresight. On 11 July 1676, he was appointed to command the Cleveland yacht. Bhy 7 January 1680, he was in command of the Catherine yacht. He was reappointed to command her on 22 October 1681, 1 April 1685, and 12 June 1687. By 13 May 1688, he was appointed to command the 3rd Rate Mary. By 29 May, he was switched to the Antelope. Almost immediately, on 1 June 1688, he was switched, again, to the Deptford. Finally, on 15 September 1688, he was appointed to command the Resolution. On 13 December 1688, he was appointed as a Rear-Admiral. On 1 May 1689, he was appointed Vice-Admiral. On 12 June 1689, he was Vice-Admiral of the Red. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. Frank Fox, "Hired Men-of-War, 1664-7", Part II, The Mariner's Mirror Vol.84 No.2 (May 1998).

  3. David Syrett, R. L. DiNardo, The Commissioned Sea Officers of the Royal Navy 1660-1815, 1994.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

The 5th Rate Forester

Pepys said that the Forester was built at the Forest of Dean by Daniel Furzer. She was completed in 1657. Her dimensions were 87ft x 25ft-6in x 10ft-6in. Her navigational draft was 12ft. Her burden was 300 tons, as built. Her peacetime complement was 75 men. In wartime, for service abroad, her complement was 100 men. For wartime in home waters, her complement swelled to 140 men. Her peacetime armament was just 24 guns, but in wartime, in home waters, she would be armed with as many as 38 guns. She was lost in November 1672, when she blew up at Livorno. It apparently was an accident. She fought in the Battle of Lowestoft, and had been assigned to Thomas Teddiman's division, when her commander was Edward Cotterell. She only carried 28 guns in the battle, and had a crew of 145 men. At the time of the Four Days Battle in June 1666, she was stationed in Ireland. During the St. James's Day Battle, she was commanded by Richard Country, and was stationed in Ireland.

Wednesday, March 23, 2005

English Captain: Richard Country

Richard Country served in the Restoration navy. In 1661, he commanded the Hind ketch. In 1662, he was appointed to command the Emsworth sloop. In 1664, assumed command of the Nonsuch ketch. Frank Fox shows Richard Country in command of the 5th Rate prize Greyhound at Dover in June 1665. Pepys says that in 1667, he was appointed to command the 5th Rate Forester, but Frank Fox says that he was in command of the Forester in June 1666 and was operating off of Ireland. In 1668, he was appointed to command the 6th Rate Drake. In 1672, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 4th Rate Portland, presumably to give him experience in larger ships. On 9 February 1673, he was appointed to command the Roebuck. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, March 22, 2005

English Captain: Robert Kirby

Robert Kirby served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. Michael Baumber says that he was a captain and was wounded at the Battle of Portland, but we don't know what ship he commanded. From 1653 to 1654, he commanded the Dutch prize Sophia (Speaker's Prize). From 1655 to 1656, he commanded the old 4th Rate Providence. From 1656 until 1660, he commanded the 4th Rate Ruby. After the Restoration in 1660, he was continued in command of the Ruby. In 1661, he was appointed to command the small 4th Rate Constant Warwick. In 1664, he was appointed to command the Breda (46 guns). He fought at the Battle of Lowestoft, where he was assigned to the Duke of York's division. He was killed in the battle. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  2. Michael Baumber, General-at-Sea, 1989.

  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Monday, March 21, 2005

English Captain: Nicholas Lucas

Nicholas Lucas served in the Commonwealth navy. From 1652 to 1654, he commanded the hired merchantman Society (44 guns and a crew of 140 men). Immediately after the defeat at Leghorn in early March 1653, the navy planned to send the Society and other ships to the Mediterranean Sea, but in the end, ceded the Mediterranean to the Dutch. He fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, where he was assigned to the General's division. Later in June, after the Gabbard, Robert Blake bought powder, shot, and matches from Nicholas Lucas for the navy, according to a letter from Blake. Nicholas very likely fought in the Battle of Scheveningen, as well. By late 1653, he was engaged in protecting the collier trade. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910

  4. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930.

Sunday, March 20, 2005

English Captain: Roger Harman

Roger Harman served in the Commonwealth navy. Roberto says that Roger Harman was born about 1595. A webpage about the Mayflower says that in 1629, there was a voyage to America, and that Roger Harman commanded the Four Sisters (14 guns). They arrived at Salem, Massachussetts, in mid-July 1629, according to Anne at packrat-pro.com. We also know that Roger Harman commanded the Dutch prize Stork (36 guns) in 1653. He arrived on the second day of the Battle of the Gabbard, under Robert Blake's command. He almost certainly fought at the Battle of Scheveningen, as well. Published Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

Saturday, March 19, 2005

English Captain: Anthony Langston

Anthony Langston served in the Restoration navy. In 1665, he was lieutenant of the Vanguard. In 1666, the Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert appointed him to command theVanguard (60 guns). He fought in the St. James's Day Battle, where he was assigned to Sir Edward Spragge's division. From June to July, 1667, he was appointed to command the Royal Exchange, but the ship was never activated, and was released before 19 July. Later in 1667, he was appointed to command the Princess. In 1670, he was appointed to command the Newcastle. On 26 March, 1678, the King appointed him to command the Bristol. on 14 January 1679 (they called it 1678, old style), John Narborough appointed to command the Royal Oak. Anthony Langston died from disease and bad living conditions on March 19, 1679. Sources:
  1. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

  2. Frank Fox, "Hired Men-of-War, 1664-7", Part II, The Mariner's Mirror Vol.84 No.2 (May 1998).

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Friday, March 18, 2005

English Captain: John Edwin

John Edwin served in both the Parliamentarian and Commonwealth navies. From 1645 to 1648, he commanded the 6th Rate Crescent (14 guns). In the Summer Guard for 1645, he was in the North Squadron. He also served in the Winter Guard for 1645. In the Summer Guard for 1646, he was stationed at Chatham. Again, in 1646, he served in the Winter Guard. During the summer of 1647, he was assigned to the Western Guard. During the summer of 1648, John Edwin commanded the Crescent in the Summer Guard. In 1648, he also commanded the 5th Rate Warwick (22 guns). From 1652 to 1653, he commanded the Dutch prize Oak (32 guns) (presumably, the ex-Akerboom). He fought at the Battle of the Gabbard in the Oak. He may have been at the Battle of Portland, but R.C. Anderson discounted the possibility. He was also at the Battle of Scheveningen, where the Oak was burnt. He survived, and later in 1653, he commanded the Cock (Golden Cock). This was a Dutch prize taken on the last day of the Battle of Portland. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

English Captain: Henry Terne (Tearne)

Henry Terne (or Tearne) served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. Andrew says that in 1659, Henry Terne was lieutenant of the 2nd Rate James. In 1660, he commanded the 4th Rate Hampshire. In 1661, he was reappointed to command the Hampshire. In 1663, he was appointed to command first the Milford and then the Portsmouth. In 1664 to 1665, he served under Sir Thomas Allin's command. In September 1664, Allin and his captains met with Michiel De Ruyter off Cadiz. In October, Henry Terne took part in a series of actions against Turkish pirates. In December, he took part in Allin's attack on the Dutch Smyrna convoy. In 1665, he commanded the 3rd Rate Dreadnought. In 1666, he commanded the 2nd Rate Triumph (72 guns), and was killed in action at the Four Days' Battle. Prior to the battle, he had been reassigned to the Triumph, replacing Sir Edward Spragge. The Duke of Albemarle praised Henry Terne in dispatches, following the battle. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.I 1660-1666, 1939.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, March 15, 2005

English Captain: John Parker

John Parker served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. From 1653 to 1656, he commanded the 6th Rate Truelove. From 1656 to 1660, he commanded the 5th Rate Cheriton. Also in 1660, he commanded the 4th Rate Nonsuch. Pepys puts the date for John Parker's command of the Nonsuch at 1661. In 1664, he was appointed to command the 4th Rate Amity. In 1666, he was appointed by the Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert to command the Yarmouth. He was killed in action at the St. James's Day Battle on July 25, 1666. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

I am waiting to receive the results of research from the Nationaal Archief

I authorized 5 hours of research at the Nationaal Archief in the Hague, to look for the "Staet van Oorlog te Water" for 1648, and some lists from 1652. I received word that the results of the research are ready to be sent, so I await that with considerable excitement. In a side note, I am still hoping that there is something useful and interesting in what I recently received from the Zeeuws Archief, although if there is anything there, it will take work to find it, as there is a good deal of information, much of it seems to be of the nature of some man providing ballast for the ship Lam.

Sunday, March 13, 2005

I received my package from the Zeeuws Archief

I have my package of copies from the Zeeuws Archief. I'm not surprised that it will take a lot of work to read and understand enough to find anything good in it. Often, it is easy to mine documents for material, but this is not the case with this material. The entire lot is handwritten material from about 1652 to 1655 relating to the various Zeeland Directors. So far, I have recognized a few names, and that is all I could read (Captain Fortuijn and Theunis Post). I can read more than that, but not so that I can actually get any sense about the nature of what I have. Supposedly, it contains information that includes the fitting out of the "Wapen van der Vere", and more. I just haven't found it yet.

English Captain: Henry Cuttance

Henry Cuttance was son of Roger Cuttance, Edward Montagu's flag captain in the Naseby, in 1660. Henry Cuttance commanded the 5th Rate Cheriton (20 guns and a crew of 90 men) in 1660. He was continued in command of the now renamed Speedwell, after the Restoration. In 1661, he comanded the Forester. In 1665, he commanded the Happy Return (52 guns). He fought in the Four Days Battle in June 1666. He was assigned to Sir William Berkeley's division. He was dimissed from the service after the battle. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Saturday, March 12, 2005

English Captain: John Simonds

John Simonds (or Symonds) served in the Commonwealth navy. In 1653, he commanded the Pelican prize (34 guns and a crew of 120 men). Presumably, this was the Dutch Vergulde Pelikaan, and Amsterdam Directors' ship captured at the Gabbard. From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the Dutch prize Elias (36 guns) . He sailed with Blake on 29 September 1654. From 1656 to 1660, he commanded the Jersey. He did not serve after 1660. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

  3. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

Thursday, March 10, 2005

English Captain: Robert Clarke

There were two Robert Clarkes who served in the Commonwealth navy. One was more prominent, and he served in the Parliamentarian and Restoration navies, as well. He was obviously a very trusted and successful captain, whenever he served. From 1644 to 1646, Robert Clarke commanded the hired merchant ship Jocelyn (12 guns, 59 men, and196 tons). He served in the Summer Guard and Winter Guard for 1644. In 1645, he was assigned to the Irish Squadron in the summer and also was assigned to the Winter Guard. From 1646 to 1650, he commanded the Swan. In 1646, he was in the Summer Guard and the Winter Guard, while commanding the 5th Rate Swan. In 1647, he was in the Irish Guard again during both summer and winter. We also know that he was in the Irish Guard in the summer of 1648. From 1650 to 1653, he commanded the Reserve. For a period in 1653, he commanded the 6th Rate Drake. From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the Bristol. In 1656, he commanded the Unicorn. He had been in the Mediterranean Sea with Robert Blake. He was among eleven selected to be sent home. In 1657, he commanded the George. He had to report Robert Blake's death to the Admiralty Commissioners, after he died within sight of home on 7 August 1657. As Blake was on the George, Robert Clarke must have been his flag captain. In 1659, he commanded the Triumph. Finally, in 1660, he commanded the Speaker and took part in the Restoration voyage. He continued in command of the Mary (the renamed Speaker) in 1660. In 1661, Robert Clarke commanded the St. George and the Royal Charles. In 1663, he commanded the Antelope. In 1665, he commanded first the St. George and then the Gloucester. He fought in the Battle of Lowestoft, while in command of the Gloucester (58 guns). He was asssigned to Sir John Lawson's division. He also fought in the Four Days Battle, still in the Gloucester. He was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's division. In 1666, the Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert appointed Robert Clarke to command the 2nd Rate Triumph. He fought in the St. James's Day Battle while in command of the Triumph. In that battle, he was assigned to the Duke of Albemarles' and Prince Rupert's division. In 1667, he commanded the Monmouth and then the Mary. In 1669, he was reappointed to command the Mary. He was very active in the latter 1660's, serving under Sir Thomas Allin. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.II 1667-1678, 1940.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. Michael Baumber, General-at-Sea, 1989.

  4. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  5. J. R. Powell, The Navy in the English Civil War, 1962.

  6. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, March 08, 2005

English Captain: Mark Harrison

Mark Harrison served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the Dutch prize Church (Kerck). From 1655 to 1657, he commanded the Gift. From 1659 to 1660, he commanded the Dutch prize Elias (the former Amsterdam Directors's ship Elias). At the Restoration, he was continued in command of the Elias. In 1663, he commanded the 2nd Rate Rainbow. In 1665, he commanded the 4th Rate Centurion. In 1666, he commanded the 2nd Rate Unicorn. replacing Henry Teddiman before the Four Days Battle was over. He lasted in command a week before he was replaced. On the last day of the Four Days Battle, he was judged to have performed badly, and was removed after the battle. In 1672, he was again in command of the Rainbow for a time. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  2. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Monday, March 07, 2005

The squadron that brought Charles II back to England for the Restoration

Edward Montagu commanded the squadron of ships that brought Charles II and his family to England in 1660. These seem to be the ships and captains involved. You will recognize many of these names, as I have written about them:
  1. Naseby, 80 guns (renamed Royal Charles) Edward Montagu and Roger Cuttance
  2. London, 64 guns John Lawson
  3. Richard, 70 guns (renamed Royal James) John Stokes
  4. Bridgwater, 52 guns (renamed Anne) Thomas Bunn
  5. Langport, 50 guns (renamed Henrietta) John Coppin
  6. Plymouth, 52 guns John Hayward
  7. Speaker, 50 guns (renamed Mary) Robert Clark
  8. Swiftsure, 60 guns Sir Richard Staynor
  9. Assistance, 40 guns Thomas Sparling
  10. Centurion, 40 guns Francis Park
  11. Elias, 36 guns Mark Harrison
  12. Foresight, 40 guns Peter Mootham
  13. Hampshire, 38 guns Henry Tearne
  14. Nonsuch, 34 guns John Parker
  15. Portsmouth, 38 guns Robert Sansum
  16. Winsby, 44 guns (renamed Happy Return) Joseph Ames
  17. Yarmouth, 44 guns Charles Wager
  18. Bradford, 24 guns (renamed Success) Peter Bowen
  19. Cherriton, 20 guns (renamed Speedwell) Henry Cuttance
  20. Dartmouth, 22 guns Richard Rooth
  21. Norwich, 22 guns Michael Nutton
  22. Wakefield, 22 guns (renamed Richmond) John Pointz
  23. Francis, 10 guns William Dale
  24. Greyhound, 20 guns Jeremy Country
This is from:
  • J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Saturday, March 05, 2005

The Henrietta, built in early 1654

Another ship from Pepys' list is the 3rd Rate Henrietta (from Tanner's book, Vol.I):
  • She was built at Horsley Downs by Mr. Bright in early 1654
  • Length on the keel: 116ft-0in
  • Breadth on the beam: 35ft-7in
  • Depth in hold: 14ft-4in
  • Draught of water: 17ft-0in
  • Burden: 781 tons
  • Crew in peacetime anywhere: 215 men
  • Crew in wartime abroad: 280 men
  • Crew in wartime at home: 355 men
  • Guns in peacetime anywere: 54 guns
  • Guns in wartime abroad: 54 guns
  • Guns in wartime at home: 62 guns

At the Four Days' Battle in June 1666, the Henrietta was commanded by Walter Wood. She carried 58 guns, consisting of 20-demi-cannon (32pdr), 4-culverins (18pdr), 26-12pdr, and 8-demi-culverins (9pdr). Her crew was about 300 men for the battle.

The Henrietta had been built as the Langport, but was renamed at the Restoration. She was wrecked in 1689. Sources:

  1. H.A. van Foreest and R.E.J. Weber, De Vierdaagse Zeeslag 11-14 Juni 1666, 1984.

  2. Brian Lavery, The Ship of the Line, Vol.I, 1983.

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Friday, March 04, 2005

English Captain: Sir John Ernle (or Ernley)

Sir John Ernle served in the Restoration navy. He started his career as lieutenant of the Rainbow in 1664. The next we see is that he was appointed lieutenant of the Hampshire in 1670. Finally, Sir Edward Spragge appointed him as lieutenant of the Rupert in 1671. Finally, in 1672, he was appointed captain of the Dover (48 guns). He fought in the Battle of Solebay, where he was assigned to Sir John Harman's division. Later in the year, he commanded the Revenge (60 guns). In August 1672, he commanded the Revenge in Sir John Harman's division. In 1673, Prince Rupert appointed him captain of the 2nd Rate Henry. He probably fought in the Schooneveld battles and surely fought in the Battle of the Texel in August 1673. On 21 July 1674, the King appointed him captain of the 4th Rate Foresight. On 2 April 1677, he was appointed to command the Woolwich. Finally, on 12 March 1678 (they called in 1677, under the old calendar), the King appointed Sir John Ernle to command the Defiance. I thought that he might be referenced by Clowes, but he is not. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Thursday, March 03, 2005

English Captain: Peter Bowen

Peter Bowen served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. He served long, but had relatively few commands. From 1653 to 1657, he commanded the Irish prize Mayflower. From 1658 to 1660, he commanded the 5th Rate Bradford (renamed Success after the Restoration), so he was continuously employed during the Commonwealth, from 1653 on to the Restoration. He was continued in command of the now renamed Success in 1660. In 1666, he was appointed to command the Dutch prize Mathias (54 guns). He fought in the Four Days Battle, where he was assigned to Sir Joseph Jordan's division. Later in 1666, he was appointed by the Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert to command the Newcastle (50 guns). He fought in the St. James's Day Battle and was assigned to Sir Robert Holmes' division. In 1669, he was appointed to command the Centurion. He was serving under Sir Thomas Allin's command. In 1672, he was appointed to command the Leopard (54 guns). He fought in the Battle of Solebay, where he was assigned to the Earl of Sandwich's division. He survived the Battle of Solebay, and in August 1672, he was assigned to Richard Beach's division in the fleet. He died in 1672, but it must have been after January, as he was given command of a group of ships in February 1673 (they called the year 1672, under the old calendar). I don't have a source that mentions the circumstances of his death. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.II 1667-1678, 1940.

  3. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  4. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

  5. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.

  6. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Wednesday, March 02, 2005

English Captain: Butler Noades

Butler Noades served in the Commonwealth navy. He commanded the Success (36 guns and a crew of 150 men) from 1651 to 1652. On 30 October 1651, he was involved in convoying ships and operating off of Scotland. He was killed in action. We know almost nothing about him. He commanded the French prize Success in February 1652, but he doesn't appear afterwards. He was assigned to the Summer Guard for 1652, which was made inoperative by the start of the war in May. Anderson only notes that Butler Noades was killed. By the Battle of Plymouth, William Kendall commanded the Success. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

  4. House of Commons Journal Volume 7 30 October 1651
  5. House of Commons Journal Volume 7 14 January 1652

Tuesday, March 01, 2005

English Captain: Sir Richard Munden

Sir Richard Munden, Andrew says, was elder brother of Sir John Munden, who also served in the Restoration navy. In 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him to command the Swallow ketch. In 1667, he commanded the Portsmouth sloop. In 1672, he was appointed to command the 3rd Rate Princess (54 guns). He was assigned to Richard Beach's division in August 1672. In 1673, he commanded the 4th Rate Assistance. On 14 April 1677, he was appointed to command the St. David. Andrew found more about him:
He was a naval captain, the elder brother of Sir John Munden. He first commanded at sea in 1666. He was a naval captain in 1672. He was knighted for capturing St. Helena from the Dutch in 1673. He was governor from 1673 to 1674. He convoyed trade in the Mediterranean from 1677 to 1680. He also seized three very richly laden Dutch East Indiamen.
Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

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