- R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.
- Michael Baumber, General-at-Sea, 1989.
- N.A.M. Rodger, The Safeguard of the Sea, 1997.
Saturday, January 22, 2005
English Naval Officer: Sir John Pennington
Sir John Pennington served in the navy before the Civil War, and in the Royalist service, after the start, although not at sea. In 1617, he commanded the hired merchantman Star. In 1620, he commanded the hired merchantman Zouch Phoenix. He commanded the 2nd Rate Victory from 1621 to 1622. In 1625, he commanded the 2nd Rate Vanguard. He acted as Admiral in the operation in support of France against the Huguenots. He commanded the 3rd Rate Lion from 1626 to 1627. In 1627, he lead the operation at La Rochelle. Apparently, in 1626 and 1627, the ere were great difficulties in supplying the fleet. They also had trouble manning the ships. In 1631, he commanded the 3rd Rate Convertine. From 1633 to 1634, he commanded the 2nd Rate Unicorn. In 1635, he was Rear-Admiral with his flag on the 2nd Rate Swiftsure. From 1636 to 1638, he was Vice-Admiral with his flag on the 2nd Rate St. Andrew. In 1636, Edward Popham was his flag lieutenant. In 1639, he flew his Admiral's flag on the 2nd Rate Rainbow, and was notable for having witnessed the Dutch attack the Spanish armada in English home waters at the Battle of the Downs. In 1640, he flew his admiral's flag on the 2nd Rate James. In 1641, he was back in the St. Andrew. He obviously sided with the Royalists in the Civil War. Sir John Pennington was notable for consulting his officers when making difficult decisions. Sources: