Sunday, February 29, 2004
Dutch ships that were definitely at the Battle of the Gabbard (1653)
Admittedly, this is a pretty unwieldy list, but nothing like this has been previously published. Dr. Carl Ballhausen lists other ships and captains, but these have not been included, until they can be verified. Most of Dr. Ballhausen's estimates are unsupportable, so we can't be too trusting.
These are based on what is in the inventory of Dutch ships that had been at the Battle of the Gabbard, and were listed in July 1653, at Vlissingen. This is from an unpublished document from the Nationaal Archief at the Hague. Other ships are primarily from Dr. Elias' book, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen (6 volumes), published between 1916 and 1930. A few are from the Navy Records Society 6-volume set, The First Dutch War.
Ships are listed alphabetically, by captain (in some cases, it is the more usual last name used for the captain).
The Admiralty key is:
|Ed-D||Edam Directors (Noorderkwartier)|
|Ha-D||Harlingen Directors (Friesland)|
|Mi-VOC||Middelburg Chamber of the VOC (the United East India Company)|
|Mo-D||Monnikendam Directors (Noorderkwartier)|
|NQ||Noorderkwartier (the archaic spelling is Noorderquartier)|
|R||Rotterdam (the Maas or Maze)|
|R-VOC||Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC|
You will notice some unfamiliar names. Those that are not estimates are based on unpublished manuscripts from the Nationaal Archief, in the Hague. There is a tremendous volume of information in the Archives, especially about the Amsterdam Directors' ships.
|Brak, 18 guns||A||Jan Admiraal|
|Prins Willem, 28 guns||A||Jan Janszoon Boermans|
|Bommel, 30 guns||A||Pieter van Brakel|
|Kameel, 28 guns*||F||Joost Bulter-sunk|
|Groningen, 40 guns||A||Gillis Tijssen Campen|
|Gekroonde Liefde, 23 guns||Z||Dingeman Cats|
|Westergo, 28 guns||F||Tijmen Claeszoon-captured|
|Prins te Paard, 38 guns||R||Jacob Cleydyck|
|Postpaert, 28 guns*||F||Isaak Codde|
|Catarina, 28 guns||A-D||Jan Jacobszoon Coppe-captured|
|Groningen*, 28 guns||Ha-D||Andries Douweszoon|
|Zon, 28 guns||Ed-D||Jacob Claeszoon Duym-lost|
|Leeuwin, 30 guns||Z||Jan Evertsen, Claes Janszoon-captain|
|Monnikendam, 36 guns||NQ||Pieter Florissen|
|Eendracht, 24 guns||Z||Andries Fortuijn|
|Gekroonde Liefde, 36 guns||Z||Markus Hartman|
|Windhond, 18 guns||A||Dirk Pieterszoon Heertjes|
|Kasteel van Medemblik, 30 guns||NQ||Adriaan Houttuijn |
|Gideon van Sardam, 34 guns||A-D||Ulrich de Jaeger|
|David en Goliad, 34 guns||A-D||Claes Bastiaenszoon Jaersveld|
|Sint Vincent, 28 guns||F-D||Adriaan Gerritszoon Kleijntien|
|Amsterdam, 30 guns||Z||Adriaan Kempen
|Leiden, 28 guns||A||Hendick Kroeger
|Fazant, 32 guns||A||Jan Janszoon Lapper
|Sint Matheeus, 36 guns||A-D||Cornelis Laurenszoon (larger)-captured|
|Sint Matheeus, 34 guns||A-D||Cornelis Naeuoogh (smaller)|
|Neptunus, 28 guns||Z||Adriaan Janszoon den Oven-lost|
|Halve Maan, 32 guns*||Mo-D||Hendrick Pieterszoon-captured|
|Leeuwarden, 36 guns||A||Govert Reael
|Rooseboom, 28 guns||A-D||Bartholomeus Rietbeeck-captured|
|Prinses Louise, 36 guns||R||Abel Roelants (Vader Abel)|
|Hoop, 30 guns||A||Boëtius Schaeff-killed|
|Dolphijn, 32 guns||A||Gerbrand Schatter|
|Stad Medemblik, 30 guns||NQ||Pieter Schellinger-captured|
|Elias, 34 guns||A-D||Frans Franszoon Sluyter-captured|
|Prinses Aemelia, 28 guns||A||Jan Fransz. Smit, Lt. of Jan Ter Stegen-lost|
|Gulden Pelikaan, 28 guns||A-D||Barend Tijmenszoon Soudaen-captured|
|Brederode, 54 guns||R||Lt-Admiral Tromp|
|Omlandia, 30 guns||A||Jacob Troucquois|
|Gelderland, 28 guns||A||Cornelis van Velsen-Blown up|
|Graaf Willem, 40 guns||A||Jan Gideonszoon Verburch-Lost|
|Walvisch, 30 guns||A-D||Abraham Verleth|
|Swarte Bul, 36 guns*||Mi-VOC||Willem Volckertszoon|
|David en Goliad, 42 guns*||R-VOC||Jan Adriaanszoon van de Werff|
|Vrede, 44 guns||A||Gideon de Wildt |
|Vrijheid, 46 guns||A||Witte de With, Abraham van der Hulst, captain|
|Campen, 42 guns||A||Willem van der Zaan
|Gloeyenden Oven, fireship||Z||unknown captain-captured|
We also know that other naval officers were present, but there is some doubt about what ship they were in (such as Michiel Adriaanszoon de Ruyter).
Saturday, February 28, 2004
All kinds of things show up in Google. I just a listing that shows that the Noorderkwartier admiral's name was actually Pieter Florisse Blom (another way of saying Florissen or Floriszoon), and that his father was Floris Hendrickszoon Blom. Pieter Florissen's wife was Lidewij Teding van Berkhout. Pieter Florissen was born in 1602 and died in 1658, killed in the Battle of the Sound.
Evert Pieterszoon Swart and the Gerechtigheid
I had not realized it, but we know the captain of the ship, Gerechtigheid, which belonged to the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC. The Gerechtigheid took part in the Battle of the Gabbard and the Battle of Scheveningen.
As early as April 17, 1653 (new style), the Gerechtigheid was with Witte de With, when his squadron sailed.
We know the captain's name from Dr. Elias book, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, volumes V and VI, and from Vol.IV of The First Dutch War, p.323.
Maarten Jacobszoon de Boer
I have only sparse information about Maarten de Boer. What I have is from Dr. Bruijn's book from 1966 and from my unpublished list.
Maarten de Boer lived from 1641 to 1681. He was a captain of the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier. In 1673, he commanded the ship Gelderland (45 guns).
Cornelis Jacobszoon de Boer
Cornelis Jacobszoon de Boer lived from 1631 to 16 June 1673. He served the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier. In 1652, he was an Extraordinary Captain and a Captain in 1661.
In 1658, he commanded the Jupiter (32 guns) in the Battle of the Sound. In 1661, he commanded the Asperen (32 guns) in the Mediterranean Sea, under De Ruyter. In 1665, he commanded the Gelderland (56 guns) in the Battle of Lowestoft. In 1666, he commanded the Wapen van Holland (48 guns) in the St. James Day Battle. In 1672, he commanded the Jupiter at the Battle of Solebay. In 1663, he commanded the Wapen van Holland at the First Battle of Schooneveld, where he was wounded and died of his wounds on 7 June.
Captain De Boer's ships as noted in sources:
|Ship:||Wapen van Holland|
|Ship:||Wapen van Holland|
|Ship:||Wapen van Holland|
A French intelligence report from the early 1670's, found by Prof. Jan Glete, and shared with me, gives some dimensions for the Wapen van Holland. The information is actually from Jan Glete's notes, taken from a document. The length is given as 131ft and the beam is given as 32ft.
The text is my translation of what is in Mollema's "Honor Roll".
The ship information is from my unpublished list, Dutch Ships 1620-1700.
Tuesday, February 24, 2004
Willem Codde van der Burgh
Willem Codde van der Burgh lived from about 1600 to 1666. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a captain in 1624 and commandeur in 1630.
In 1626, he fought against the Dunkirkers,hunted in the area and bombarded Dunkirk. In 1627, he served under Reael in the Atlantic Ocean and on the coast of Morocco. In 1628-1629, he fought against the Dunkirkers. In 1630, he was a squadron commander in the North Sea. In 1631, Hunted a Spanish ship with reinforcements for Dunkirk near the area of Calais. He accompanied a convoy to the Shetlands. In 1634-1636, he was a squadron commander before Dunkirk. In 1636, dismissed because of indignation of the Dutch people over the desultery manner of the blockade, is blessed. 1638-1639, he served under Tromp before Dunkirk and at the Battle of the Downs. In 1643, he left the service. He was proposed for Vice-Admiral in 1665.
This is my translation of what is in Mollema's "Honor Roll".
My list has two of his ships:
|Note date:||5/1628 |
|Captain:||Willem Janszoon Codde|
|Captain:||Willem Janszoon Codde|
As lasts were often just estimated, and there was not a closed form
calculation that you can perform, we can only guess at the dimensions.
A way of estimating size would be:
Length x Beam x Hold / K, where K could be something like 237 or 217.
160 lasts x 237 = 116ft x 27-1/4ft x 12ft, for example.
This comes out quite nicely, and is a "standard" size.
300 lasts x 235 = 143ft x 34ft x 14-1/2ft
This makes for a large ship!
Monday, February 23, 2004
The Amsterdam Directors' ship Gulden Pelikaan
I don't imagine that too many people are aware of the specifications for the Pelikaan (18 March 1653), an Amsterdam Directors' ship. I have a copy of an unpublished manuscript from the Nationaal Archief, in the Hague, that has the following information:
Height between decks: 6-1/4ft
Guns (28): 10-12pdr, 8-8pdr, 8-6pdr, 2-3pdr
I have been reviewing unpublished manuscript copies, and this was apparently the Gulden Pelikaan, not the ship commanded by Captain Overcamp, even though the adjective is omitted in the manuscript copy that I have.
The latter Pelikaan (or as the archaic spelling was, Pelicaen) was a ship belonging to the Admiralty of Amsterdam. There are three references to that ship. One is in "Thurloe", and is part of a list, and is reprinted in The First Dutch War, Vol.V, page 185. The other is on page 359, as part of a list of ships that had been at the Battle of Scheveningen and needed repairs.
We know that Pelikaan was also at the Gabbard, but survived. On 22 June 1653, the Pelikaan was lying in the Texel, with other surviving ships, after the battle (The First Dutch War, Vol.V, p.185). Therefore, we know the ship was at both the Gabbard and at Scheveningen.
The published reference to the Gulden Pelikaan is in Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, Vol.V, Note p.94. The note says that the Gulden Pelikaan was lost at the Battle of the Gabbard, and was commanded by Barend Tijmenszoon Soudaen.
Sunday, February 22, 2004
Karel van der Putte
Karel van der Putte lived from about 1640 to 1695. He served the Admiralty of Zeeland.
In May 1672, at the time of the Battle of Solebay, he commanded the Zeeland frigate Ter Goes (34 guns). There is evidence that in both July and September 1672, he still commanded the Ter Goes. By 23 May 1673, he commanded the Domburg (60 guns). That was still true in August 1673, at the time of the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin). In June 1674, he commanded the Vlissingen (50 guns). This was during the expedition to Martinique. He served under Michiel de Ruyter, and is listed with that fleet in Brandt's book. In 1688, he was a Vice-Admiral, and his flagship was the Gekroonde Burg (60 guns). He was in the fleet that took Willem III to England.
Brandt, Gerard, Het Leven en Bedrijf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, Amsterdam, 1687.
Bruijn, Drs. J.R., De Oorlogvoering Ter Zee in 1673 in Journalen en Andere Stukken, Groningen, 1966.
De Jonge, J.C., Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen, Vol. III, Zwolle, 1869.
Jan van Nes de Jonge Boer Jaap
On 26 February 1652, the Jonge Boer Jaap (Jan van Nes), commanded the small frigate, the Gelderland. At least, the 26 February 1652 Rotterdam admiralty manuscript says that. The details are:
At Date: 2/1652
Captain: Jan van Nes de Jonge Boer Jaep
Length (Maas feet): 100ft (Amsterdam feet): 109
Beam (Maas feet): 23ft (Amsterdam feet): 25
Hold (Maas feet): 8ft (Amsterdam feet): 8-3/4
In August 1652, Lieutenant Jan van Nes commanded the ship Gelderland (26 guns, crew 90) in Michiel De Ruyter's fleet. This was said to be the Jonge Boer Jaep's ship. I believe that the Lieutenant actually was the younger Jan Janszoon van Nes, but that is somewhat unclear.
Dr. Elias makes clear, in Schetsen, that there were two men named Jan Jacobszoon van Nes. There was the "Oude Boer Jaep" and there was the "Jonge Boer Jaep". On 7 July 1652 (new style), he wrote an intelligence report from Gravesend, listing the English fleet. This was eventually passed to Lt-Admiral Tromp. On 12 August 1652, his ship was lying mastless, at Havre de Grâce, after a collision that sank the Friesland ship, Sint Nikolaas (23 guns). Apparently, J.C. de Jonge, in Vol.I of Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen has more information on page 771 and beyond.
Gerard van den Dussen
I am weak on information on the Dutch navy and naval officers, after 1683. The most obvious sources that I have seen really do not have that much, either. I rely, at least some, on J.C. de Jonge's Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen.
Gerard van den Dussen was a "commandeur" in 1688, and took part in the voyage taking Willem III to England. He commanded the Zeelandia in this operation. In 1696, he was a captain in Lt-Admiral van Almonde's squadron, commanding the Unie. They seem to have been operating in a commerce protection role, which is not surprising.
At Date: 1688
Captain: G. van den Dussen
At Date: 1696
Captain: G. van den Dussen
Saturday, February 21, 2004
We continue to be indebted to Prof. Jan Glete for his help
I am not the only beneficiary of Jan Glete's help. He has also been advising the mastermind behind the "Sailing Warship index" website. His interest, as is my focus, is the Swedish navy. I am interested, right now, because I want to do a credible job on a Battle of the Sound scenario and OOB.
I had not realized, until I had started to do research, how much information was available about the Swedish fleet. I am greatly indebted to Teemu Koivumäki for the work he has done on the "Sailing Warship index". I have provided a link to his excellent site, as there is a wealth of information there (although we always need more).
Wednesday, February 18, 2004
Gillis Schey lived from 5 September 1644 to 15 June 1703. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a Midshipman in 1656, Lieutenant in 1661, Extraordinary Captain in 1669, Captain in 1675, Schout-bij-Nacht in 1683, and Vice-Admiral in 1692.
In 1659, he served of commander of soldiers, under De Ruyter, at Funen. In 1664, he served with his father, in the Mediterranean Sea, under Cornelis Tromp. In 1665, he distinguished himself at Lowestoft. In 1666, he distinguished himself at the Four Days and St. James Day Battles, serving with his father. In 1667, he fought in the Raid on Chatham. In 1670, he fought under Van Ghent in the destruction of 6 Algerian ships. In 1673, he commanded the Tijdverdrijf (50 guns) at Schooneveld and the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin). In 1674, he served under Cornelis Tromp in the voyage off the French coast. In 1675-1676, he commanded the Essen (50 guns) which was sunk in the Battle of Stromboli. He commanded the Spiegel (70 guns) in the Battles of Etna and Palermo. In 1678, he served under Evertsen in the relief force sent to Spain. In 1683, he served under Schepers in the voyage to the Sound and Göteborg. His ship was lost on the return voyage (along with many others, in a storm). In 1685-1686, he was a convoy commander in the Sound and the Mediterranean Sea. In 1688, he commanded the Wapen van Utrecht (62 guns) in the fleet that brought Willem III to England, fighting in the capture of Cork. In 1690, he commanded the Prinses Maria (92 guns) in the Battle of Beach Head. In 1692, he distinguished himself at La Hogue. In 1694-1695, he commanded under Almonde in the Channel. He took part in the bombardment of Dunkirk.
This is my translation of what is in Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Another Dirck Schey
This Dirck Schey lieved from 1614 to October 1679. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was an Extraordinary Captain in 1652 and an Ordinary Captain in 1654.
In 1652, Dirck Schey fought at Dover and Dungeness. In 1653, he fought at the Battle of Portland and he ship was taken. In 1657-1658, he commanded the Campen (42 guns) under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1659, he commanded the Stad en Lande (50 guns) in the voyage to the Sound, Funen, and Nyborg. In 1663-1664, he distinguished himself, under Cornelis Tromp, against the Algerians. In 1665, he fought as temporary Vice-Admiral in the Oisterwijck (70 guns) at the Battle of Lowestoft. In 1666, he commanded the Gouda (40 guns) in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he commanded the Spiegel (70 guns) in the Raid on Chatham. In 1672-1673, he commanded convoys to Spain and the Baltic. In 1674, he served under Cornelis Tromp in voyage off the French coast. In 1678, he served with the relief force sent to Spain.
This is from Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Dirck Schey's ships:
1652 Achilles, 28 guns, crew 100, built in 1644
1654 Zuiderhuis, 32 guns, built in 1653 (the ship later carried at least 40 guns)
1658 Campen, 42 guns, crew 150, built in 1652
1659 Stad en Lande, 50 guns, crew 225, built in 1653
1665 Oosterwijk, 60 guns, crew 290, built in 1653
1666 Gouda or Stad Gouda, 46 guns, crew of 192 sailors and 30 soldiers, built about 1656
1666-1671 Spiegel, 70 guns, crew 325 sailors and 50 soldiers, built in 1663
This information is from my unpublished document, Dutch Ships 1620-1700, mostly compiled in 2003.
Dirck Schey (1581 to about 1660)
There was an earlier Dirck Schey. In 1626, he was charged with taking money, from a Spanish barge on the Rhine intended for the States. In 1631, he distinguished himself at the capture of Schenkenschans.
This is my attempt at translating the entry in Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Monday, February 16, 2004
Jan Snellen lived from about 1630 to 1691. He served the Admiralty of the Maze (Rotterdam). In May 1673, he commanded the frigate Utrecht (34 guns). He was part of Michiel De Ruyter's squadron. His ship had a crew of 133 sailors and 27 soldiers. In June, he still commanded the Utrecht.
Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, Amsterdam, 1687.
Dr. J.R. Bruijn, De Oorlogvoering Ter Zee in 1673 in Journalen en Andere Stukken, Groningen, 1966.
Barent Martenszoon served the Admiralty of Zeeland. At the time of the Battle of Solebay, Captain Martenszoon commanded the frigate Visschers Harder. His ship was part of Lt-Admiral Banckert's squadron. The ship carried 26 guns and had a crew of 57 sailors and 51 soldiers. Circa 21 May 1673, Captain Martenszoon commanded the frigate Goes, which had a crew of 142.
Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, Amsterdam, 1687.
The Carlbom book
The author's name for the book that has detailed Swedish ship information is Johan Levin Carlbom, who was born in 1854. The book to which I previously referred was published in 1905 (according to Dr. Ballhausen). This morning, I received a recommendation for Carlbom's books from Dan Schorr, who has a website that deals with 17th and 18th Century history in the Baltic (I hope I have not too badly characterized his site).
Sunday, February 15, 2004
I was pleasantly surprised at how much information is available about Swedish ships, mid-17th Century. The website, "Sailing Warships", to which I have contributed, is a very good source. For Danish prizes, I looked at his Danish section. I also found, to my amazement, that Dr. Ballhausen's book was a good source for the subject of Swedish warships. I found a reference to a new source, as I have already mentioned.
I have a new Excel spreadsheet for doing calculations about Swedish ships. I also calculated weights for a new set of guns, suitable for the Swedish ships. For the last 4 or 5 years, I have had a system for calculating gun weights, with an Excel spreadsheet, that uses the shot weight, the barrel length, in feet, and a thickness factor, designed to reflect the amount of metal in the gun barrel, on a relative basis.
The Swedish gun spreadsheet has 42pdrs, 36pdrs, 30pdrs, 24pdrs, 18pdrs, 14pdrs, 12pdrs, 10pdrs, 8pdrs, 6pdrs, 4pdrs, 3pdrs, and 2pdrs. Dr. Ballhausen's book had gun lists that added 42pdrs, 14pdrs, and 10pdrs to the mix.
Swedish ship information
I have been doing research for an OOB for the Battle of the Sound, in 1658. Dr. Ballhausen, in footnotes on pages 721 to 726 of his book, has much information about Swedish ship armaments. He attributes it to a book:
John Levin Carlbom, Om Karl X Gustafs Polska Krig och övergången till det 2 dra Sundkriget, Göteborg, 1905.
He also has crew numbers for all the ships which seem very plausible.
I will list some of the information:
Samson, 34-36 guns, crew 113
Captain: Matts Mårtensson Dynkirch
Guns: 4-24pdr, 14-14pdr, 4-12pdr, 8-10pdr, 4-6pdr
Carolus, 50-54 guns, crew 187
Captain: Major Klas Johannson Uggla
Built in 1650/51
Guns: 26-24pdr, 20-12pdr, 2-10pdr, 6-6pdr
I would be interested to know what someone knowledgable thinks about this source and the information. I may post more of it, over the next week.
Saturday, February 14, 2004
A new blog about 17th Century Naval Wargaming
I just started a new blog for 17th Century Naval Wargaming, and have added a link from this blog. I will move my wargaming commentary, in the future, to that forum, and keep this blog for strictly 17th Century naval history, especially the Anglo-Dutch Wars.
Friday, February 13, 2004
Jan Janszoon Dick
Jan Dick lived until 10 July 1690. He served the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier. He was a captain in 1671 and a Schout-bij-Nacht in 1673.
In 1672, he fought at Solebay where his ship, the Jozua
was sunk. In 1673, he commanded the Eenhoorn
(70 guns) at Schooneveld, and fought as a Schout-bij-Nacht at the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin), where he was severely wounded. In 1674, he served under Cornelis Tromp on the French coast and in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1688, he commanded a squadron in the fleet that brought William III to England. In 1690, he was killed at the Battle of Beach Head (Bevesier).
This is from my translation from Mollema's "Honor Roll".
These are Jan Dick's ships (from my unpublished document):
, 48 guns, crew 184 sailors and 59 soldiers
May 1672 Jozua
, about 54 guns
July 1672 Noorderkwartier
, 60 guns, crew 256 sailors and 13 soldiers
May-August 1673 Eenhoorn
, 70 guns
, 64 guns, crew 300
Joris van Cats
Mollema, in the "Honor Roll" calls him Joris Catz (without the "van"). He lived from about 1590 to 1654. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a captain in 1621, Commandeur in 1640, and Schout-bij-Nacht in 1647.
In 1622, Joris van Cats was a squadron commander in the expedition of Pijnacker to Morocco. In 1630-31, he made two voyages as squadron commander to Muscovy. In 1631, he distinguished himself with Captain Vink against the Dunkirkers. In 1636-38, he commanded the Zutphen in the blockade of Dunkirk. In 1639, he distinguished himself as a squadron commander at the Battle of the Downs. In 1641-43, he was the blockade commander before Dunkirk. In 1651-52, he was fleet commander in the Mediterranean Sea, blockading the English in Livorno. He was replaced by Johan van Galen.
R.C. Anderson can give us some more insight into the latter event, in his 1963 Mariner's Mirror article, "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean".
This relies upon what Anderson has to say about Cats.
In August 1651, the Dutch decided to send a fleet of 15 ships, under Maarten Tromp's command, to the Mediterranean to defend Dutch sea commerce against the French. That did not actually happen. Instead, about October 1651, Joris van Cats was sent with 5 ships towards Cadiz. Tromp got sick, so he never arrived. There is a document, from the Rotterdam Admiralty, that mentions this deployment. They were actually going to send Tromp, in the Brederode (54 guns), along with other ships. Instead, the Dutch found that the English had hostile intent towards them, and so Tromp stayed in home waters.
Joris van Cats did not receive his orders to move into the Mediterranean Sea until 20 March 1652 (probably Old Style). Apparently on 27 June (I believe that this is the correct month) blockaded the English commodore Appleton in Livorno, with his squadron.
Appleton made the mistake to let Owen Cox, in the Constant Warwick take a French ship, outside the port. That offended the Duke of Tuscany, who demanded the ship's release. After the Constant Warwick left Livorno to careen at Genoa, Appleton was left with only two ships.
The Dutch, at home, were disappointed at Joris van Cats' lack of action. Johan van Galen was sent out, over land, to replace him. He arrived at Livorno on 22 August (Old Style), and led the fleet into battle, after only five more days.
From my unpublished document, Dutch Ships 1620-1700, we know something more about Joris van Cats' ships (this is only for what I have documentation):
1627-1629 Zeeland (30 guns plus 9 steenstukken), the crew varied from 90 to 105 men. The ship measured 200 lasts. The guns consisted of 6-18pdr, 6-12pdr, 12-8pdr, 4-5pdr, 2-3pdr bases, and 9 steenstukken (Jan Glete says that these were swivels, despite the name).
1636-1637 Zutphen (8 brass and 18 iron guns), crew of 110 salors and 20 soldiers.
1639 Zutphen (28 guns), the crew being 110 men.
1652 Jaarsveld (44 guns), the crew being 150 men.
- Dr. M.G. De Boer, De Kapiteinsjaren van Maerten Harpertszoon Tromp, Amsterdam, 1938.
- Dr. M.G. De Boer, Tromp en de Armada van 1639, Amsterdam, 1941.
Thursday, February 12, 2004
The Swart family of naval officers
Hendrick Claeszoon Swart
He lived until 6 September 1652. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was an Ordinary Captain in 1650.
In 1636, he distinguished himself and received a gold medal for capturing a Dunkirker. In 1643, he was in the blockade service before Dunkirk under Tromp and De With. In 1651 and 1652, he commanded the Vereenigde Provinciën under Catz before Livorno. He was killed, serving under Van Galen, in the Battle of Monte Cristo (Elba).
Jacob Andrieszoon Swart
He lived from about 1620 to 8 May 1679, and a captain for the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was an Extraordinary Captain in 1652 and an Ordinary Captain in 1654.
In 1652 and 1653, he fought in the sea battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War, and distinguished himself at the Battle of Scheveningen (Ter Heide). In 1654, he served in the relief force sent to Brazil, but they arrived at the capitulation. In 1656, he commanded the three-masted yacht, Windhond (22 guns) under Van Wassenaer in the Sound and before Danzig. In 1659, he commanded the Vrede (40 guns) under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea, and at Funen and Nyborg. In 1661, he commanded the Asperen (32 guns) under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea an don the Portuguese coast. In 1665, he commanded the Huis te Kruiningen (62 guns) at the Battle of Lowestoft. In 1666, he distinguished himself on the Deventer in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he commanded the Stad en Lande in the Raid on Chatham.
Jacob Corneliszoon Swart
He lived from about 1630 to about 1680. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam and was a captain in 1659.
In 1659, he commanded the Dom van Utrecht (40 guns) under De Ruyter in the Sound. In 1661 and 1664, he served under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea, on the Portuguese coast, and in the expeditions sent to Guinea and the West Indies. In 1666, he commanded the Provincie van Utrecht (60 guns) in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he took part in the Raid on Chatham. In 1669, he served under Van der Zaan against the Algerians. He was dismissed due to an absence from duty. 1675, was taken back into the service. In 1676 and 1677, he fought under Schepers against Sweden at Malmö.
Jacob Pieterszoon Swart
He was a captain for the Admiralty of the Maze. He was a captain in 1666.
In 1666, he commanded the Schiedam (22 guns) in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he fought at Chatham. He commanded the frigate Rotterdam (30 guns) in 1673, and fought at the Schooneveld Battles and at the Battle of the Texel. In 1674, he served under Cornelis Tromp on the French coast.
Jan Swart lived from about 1640 to 3 March 1677. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a skipper in 1664, a lieutenant in 1666, a captain-Lieutenant in 1666, and a captain in 1673.
In 1666, he served as a lieutenant under Cornelis Tromp in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he served as captain-lieutenant under Palm at the Raid on Chatham. In 1676 and 1677, he commanded the Middelburg (32 guns) in the expedition, under Benckes, to the West Indies. He ship was burnt in the action against d'Estrées at Tobago.
Volckert Hendrickszoon Swart
He lived from 1643 to 29 August 1673, and was a captain for the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a captain in 1666.
In 1666, he was the flag captain of Van Ghent in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1672, he commanded the Oisterwijck at the Battle of Solebay. In 1673, he commanded the Callantsoog (70 guns) at Schooneveld and the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin), and was wounded and died at the last battle.
- Dr. J.R. Bruijn, De Oorlogsvoering Ter Zee in 1673 in Journalen en Andere Stukken, Groningen, 1966.
- J.C. Mollema, "The Honor Roll", contained as an appendix to Vol. 2 of Geschiedenis van Nederland ter Zee, 4 Vols., Amsterdam, 1939-1941
Wednesday, February 11, 2004
Frank Fox says that rumour said that Bastiaen Centen (or Senten) was an expatriat Scot. In any case, he served with distinction from the First Anglo-Dutch War until he was killed at the Battle of Lowestoft. Apparently, his ship in the First Anglo-Dutch War was the Haes. Possibly, this was the Haes in 't Veld (30 guns), which had been commanded by Leendert den Haen at the Battle of Plymouth.
Bastiaen Centen was present at the Battle of Dungeness, and after the battle, captured the English hired ship, the Hercules (34 guns), which had been sailing independently.
At the Battle of Lowestoft, Bastiaen Centen commanded the East Indiaman, Oranje (76 guns). Thanks to Artitec, the Dutch model makers, we know the Oranje's dimensions:
Length: 170 feet
Width (beam): 38 feet
Hold ("hol en koebrug,
overloop en verdek"): 14 feet
I suspect the depth of hold would be 18 feet, measured from the keel to the underside of the main deck.
At the Battle of Lowestoft, Bastiaen Centen fought gallantly to support his fleet commander against the Duke of York, whose flagship was the Royal Charles (78 guns). There is a Van de Velde drawing, on page 118 and 119 of Frank Fox's book that shows the bow of the Oranje, engaging an unidentified English ship.
After the Dutch flagship, Eendracht (73 guns), blew up, Bastiaen Centen attacked the Royal Charles. Eventually, the great East Indiaman was overcome and captured. The Oranje was so badly damaged, the English burnt the ship, after taking off the survivors, including a badly wounded Captain Centen. The Duke of York was saddened when the gallant Centen died a half hour after being captured. He had hoped that such a brave man would survive.
- J. C. Mollema, "Honor Roll"
- Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days Battle of 1666
- Artitec.nl website: voc.artitec.nl
- J.E. Elias, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van Ons Zeewezen
- various volumes of The First Dutch War (Navy Records Society)
Frans Querijnszoon Mangelaer
Frans Mangelaer lived from about 1600 to 1661. He served and Zeeland Admiralty. He was a lieutenant in 1631 and a captain in 1646.
In 1633, he fought under Banckert against the Dunkirkers. In 1636, he fought under Evertsen against the Dunkirkers (Collaert). In 1639, he distinguished himself at the Battle of the Downs. In 1643, he again fought the Dunkirkers. In 1652, he commanded the Liefde
(30 guns) under De Ruyter at the Battle of Plymouth. After that, he fought under Witte de With, at the Battle of the Kentish Knock. In 1653, he fought at the Battles of Portland and Scheveningen (Ter Heide). In 1654 and 1656, he was a convoy commander in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1659, he commanded the Utrecht
(44 guns) under De Ruyter in the actions in the Sound, at Funen and Nyborg. In 1661, in Cornelis Evertsen's squadron, he captured the privateer Collaert. He was awarded a golden chain.
This is an edited version of my translation of what J.C. Mollema wrote in the "Honor Roll" (from Geschiedenis van Nederland ter zee
Monday, February 09, 2004
Is now propagated to DNS, so that it can be accessed, directly:
This is tracking www.anglo-dutch-wars.blogspot.com quite closely. Again, the reason for its existence is to make the content searchable by Google, etc., as this blog is not (although it was for a period of time).
Sunday, February 08, 2004
More Dutch Naval Officers
Adriaan Teding van Berkhout
Adriaan Teding van Berkhout served the Admiralty of Noorderkwartier. He was a lieutenant in 1652 and a captain in 1665. In 1652 and early 1653, he served as lieutenant under Cornelis Tromp in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1666, he fought in the Four Days and St. James Day battles.
Frank Fox, in A Distant Storm says that Captain van Berkhout commanded the Prinses Roijaal (40 guns), in Cornelis Tromp's squadron at the Battle of Lowestoft. At the Four Days Battle, he was in Jan Meppel's squadron, where he commanded the Drie Helden Davids (48 guns). At the St. James Day Battle, he commanded the same ship in Meppel's squadron.
Otto van Treslong
Otto van Treslong was one of the few members of Dutch nobility to serve in the navy (Frank Fox). He lived from about 1640 to 11 June 1666. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam, having become a captain in 1665. He was killed at the Four Days Battle, where he commanded the Duivenvoorde (46 guns), which was burnt. Previously, he had distinguished himself at the Battle of Lowestoft, where he had commanded the Stad Gouda (48 guns).
At Lowestoft, Captain Treslong was in Jakob Wassenaer's squadron, where Abraham van der Hulst was the second-in-command. At the Four Days Battle, Otto van Treslong was in Jan Janszoon van Nes' division in Aert van Nes' squadron.
This information is mainly from Frank Fox's book, A Distant Storm: The Four Days Battle of 1666. Some of it from Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Wemberich van Berchem
Wemberich van Berchem lived from 1581 to 30 May 1653. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam, and was a captain in 1621 and Vice-Admiral in 1628. 1605, he was captured in the West Indies. In 1607, he served the VOC (the East India Company). In 1621 to 1628, he fought against the Dunkirkers. It seems that in 1624, his ship blew up, but he survived. In 1628, he was a convoy commander in the Sound. He defeated two Dunkirkers at Skagen. In 1629, he was a squadron commander under Piet Hein, and fought in the Gulf of Biscay against Dunkirkers. In 1632, he served under Van Dorp in the Channel. In 1637, commanded, as Vice-Admiral, the Fredrick Hendrick off the Flemish coast. In 1638, he was dismissed from the service.
This is my translation of what J.C. Mollema wrote in the "Honor Roll".
The 226 Dutch ships authorized for the First Anglo-Dutch War
At one point, knowing how the makeup of the 226 Dutch ships funded, at the time start of the First Anglo-Dutch War seemed important. The problem being is that although some published sources treat this like a solid number, the real number of ships that participated in the war was fluid.
There are some useful figures in the mix. That is especially true for the Directors' ships and the "36 ships of 1651). There is a direct and obvious mapping between the Noorderkwartier ships and what is found in the list (at least by captain's name).
The source for this information is H.T. Colenbrander's book, Bescheiden uit vreemde archieven omtrent de groote Nederlandsche zeeoorlogen 1652-1676, Vol.I, pp.51-53, published in 1919. I knew of this book from Frank Fox's book, A Distant Storm: the four days battle of 1666 (1996).
The 40 Ships of 1648
The 36 Ships of 1651
The 100 Ships of 1652
The 50 Directors Ships
In addition, there were 6 VOC (East-India Company) ships that were allocated to the fleet, beyond the 226. There were two 30-ship building programs plus purchases that were also added, although most of the new construction was completed post-war.
Saturday, February 07, 2004
The Battle of the Kentish Knock (UPDATED)
I have increased respect for the Dutch performance at the Battle of the Kentish Knock. I have run the simulation, recently, and the Dutch are really out-matched by the large English ships. The worst formation for the Dutch is to "cross the T", by sailing in front of the English, in a line. The English will break the line, and the Dutch take too many losses. I have had the best outcome for the Dutch by getting into position to break the English line. That is difficult, as the Dutch are downwind from the English. Running the simulation, solo, the English sail towards the Dutch in line abreast. That is actually favorable for the Dutch, if the Dutch fleet is able to get turned to break the English line. When I have been able to do that, the English quickly take a large number of losses.
The Kentish Knock is a sharp contrast to the Battle of Portland. The Dutch were in a very favorable position at Portland, with the English fleet divided. Frank Fox says that the Dutch very nearly won the battle on the first day. They were able to board English flagships, and almost took them. As as the Kentish Knock and Dungeness, Blake paid no attention to tactics and formations; he just wanted to fight, and to bring the Dutch to battle as quickly as possible.
The main problem for the Dutch, and was that they still had small ships and were poorly supplied. The third day was brutal, as the Dutch ships ran short of ammunition.
Anglo-Dutch Wars republish site
My new website, meant for republishing posts from this site, is now up and running, although with a temporary URL (until DNS servers are all updated):
Google and other search engines do not seem to be indexing blogs, so the concept is to republish the information in such a way that search engines would crawl the site, indexing the information for access.
I will post when the real URL, www.anglodutchwarsblog.com
For now, the site is being published with the free version of CityDesk, from Fog Creek Software. I am using a default look, as I am new to the tool.
Friday, February 06, 2004
Pieter Bakker served the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier. In August and September 1672, he commanded the small frigate, the Mercurius
, 24 guns. In early 1653, Pieter Bakker commanded the Jupiter
, 42 guns. I have some contradictory information about what happened after that. George Legge, the captain of the English 2nd Rate Royal Katherine
said in his log that he captured the Jupiter
of Enkhuizen, whose captain was Pieter Bakker, and which carried 50 guns and had a crew of 150 men. I have information that Pieter Bakker commanded the Jupiter
in May 1673, at the Schooneveld battles and in August 1673, at the Battle of the Texel. In April 1674, he commanded the Jupiter
, presumably at Martinique, with De Ruyter.
Pieter Bakker's ships:
, 24 guns and a crew of 100
Built in 1669
Dimensions: 106ft x 26ft x 12ft
, 40-44 guns, crew in 1674 was 166 sailors and 31 marines
Built in 1653
Dimensions: 132ft x 32ft x 12-1/2ft
My unpublished list, "Dutch Ships 1620-1700".
Dr. J.R. Bruijn, De Oorlogvoering ter zee in 1673 in journalen en andere stukken
, Groningen, 1666.
R.C. Anderson, Ed., Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War
, London, 1946.
Claes Bakker (Klaas Backer)
Claes Bakker commanded the Noorderkwartier ship, the Wapen van Holland
(38 guns) in Pieter Florissen's squadron at the Battle of the Sound, in 1658. That squadron was the rear of the fleet. In 1659, Claes Bakker and Claes Valehaan captured the Delmenhorst
Claes Bakker's ships:
, 30 guns
Dimensions: 116ft x 26-1/2ft x 10ft
1658: Wapen van Holland
, 38 guns and a crew of 125
Carl Ballhausen, Der Erste Englisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1652-1654 Sowie der Schwedisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1658-1659
, Haag, 1923
My unpublished list, "Dutch Ships 1620-1700"
New website with Anglo-Dutch War archives
I will have a new website: www.anglodutchwarsblog.com.
When it is in operation, it will have content from www.anglo-dutch-wars.blogspot.com, in hopes that the content will be searchable in Google. In late December 2003 and early January 2004, this information from this blog was searchable in Google. Since later in January, it has not been. I will post on this blog, when the new website is available.
More Dutch naval officers
This is mainly from J.C. Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Engel De Ruyter
Engel De Ruyter lived from May 2, 1649 to February 27, 1683. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was a midshipman in 1666. In 1668, he became a Extraordinary-Captain. In 1669, he was a captain and in 1673, he was a Schout-bij-Nacht (Rear-Admiral).
In 1664-1665, he served with his father in the Mediterranean Sea, on the coast of Guinea, and in the West Indies. In 1670, he fought under Van Ghent against the Algerians. He was awarded medal and chain for his distinguished service. In 1672, he was intended to be part of the fireship attack at Solebay. That is when the 100-gun flagship, the Royal James was burnt and the Earl of Sandwich drowned. Instead, he commanded the Deventer (60 guns) at Solebay, where he was wounded. In 1672-1673, he commanded a company of sailors defending a water-filled defense line. In 1673, he commanded the Waesdorp (72 guns) at Schooneveld and the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin). In 1674, he commanded the Spiegel (70 guns), under Michiel De Ruyter, at Martinique. In 1675, he was a convoy commander in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1676, he commanded temporarily in the Sound. In 1678, he was squadron commander with the fleet sent to aid Spain. He fought Chateaurenault.
Jan de Lapper
Jan de Lapper died in 1658. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1638, he became a captain.
In 1639, he distinguished himself against the Dunkirkers and at the Battle of the Downs. In 1645, he served under Witte de With, in the operation to push a merchant fleet into the Sound, without paying the toll. In 1652-1653, he fought in the great battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War. In 1656, he commanded the Marseveen (42 guns) under Van Wassenaer in the Sound and before Danzig.
Jan de Lapper's ships that are known are:
1628: Gouden Leeuw, a small vessel of 50 lasts
1652-1653: Fazant, 32 guns and a crew of 120
Built in 1646
Dimensions: 120ft x 29ft x 12ft
1656: Marseveen, 42 guns and a crew of 155
Built in 1653
Dimensions: 130ft x 32ft x 13-1/2ft
Thursday, February 05, 2004
AOSII/Privateers Bounty--some lessons
I just fought a strongly contested Battle of the Kentish Knock. As usual, I took the Dutch side. The battle ended up being closer than it should have for several reasons.
The main reason is that I didn't do a good job of managing burning ships. I needlessly lost other ships, before I started taking care that other ships did not sail into them. What I found worked well is to steer the burning ships away, although perhaps towards English ships. Then, right click have the crew fight the fire. Then, I steered other ships away from them. Radical manouvers do not work well. A smaller move, in the general direction the ship is sailing works much better.
The other point is to be more attentive to keeping ships together, and sailing as groups. Keep manouvering your ships to keep the enemy under fire. In some circumstances, start manouvering ships individually, to be able to rake the opposing ships. The best situation is to be able to rake your opponent, while he cannot fire at you.
Another point is to monitor where your ships are, and what their course is. It is all too easy to touch a ship, to see how its guns are pointing or the course set, and have the course steered jump in some odd direction.
This battle I fought, this evening was quite even, as the Battle of the Kentish Knock, or at least the way the battle is set up, makes the approach difficult. My best results have been when I have been able to manouver the Dutch into an oblong mass and use that to break the English line. That is a devastating attack, while sailing in a parallel line to the English can be very dangerous. The Dutch cannot risk that situation.
More Dutch Naval Officers
This is more from J.C. Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Sier de Liefde
Sier de Liefde lived from 1595 to December 1652. He served the Admiralty of the Maze (Rotterdam). He was a captain in 1636 and a Schout-bij-Nacht in 1651.
In 1620, he convoyed the fishing fleet and repelled an attack, by two Dunkirkers at Texel. In 1637, he recaptured two prizes from the Dunkirkers. In 1638, he fought an action against two Dunkirkers. In 1639, he fought under Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp at the Downs. In 1641, he commanded the Witte Engel (30 guns) under Gysels in the operation off Portugal, fighting at the Battle of St. Vincent. In 1643/'44, he convoyed the fishing fleet. In 1652, he fought at the Battles of Dover and Dungeness. He was wounded at the last battle and died.
Douwe Aukes was born about 1610. From Mollema, we don't know when he died. He served the Admiralties of Friesland and Amsterdam.
In 1652, he distinguished himself as captain of the Vogelstruys in the Battle of Plymouth. In 1657, he was a skipper in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1665, he was a merchant at Amsterdam. In 1666, he supposedly went to the East Indies.
Tuesday, February 03, 2004
For those who are interested in this sort of thing...
As an experiment, I ran the AOSII/Privateers Bounty simulator with the Battle of Portland (28 February-2 March 1653--New Style). I ran the simulator with the difficulty turned up to maximum. I intended to not maneuver the Dutch, at all, to see what would happen.
I was monitoring damage, and on touching the Overijssel
(28 guns), altering the course, accidentally. I altered the course again, to send the ship back towards the fleet. Eventually, I did some maneuvering, but generally tried to restrict the course changes to a squadron or the entire fleet. Towards the end, I maneuvered the entire Dutch fleet back toward the remaining English squadron.
The AI performed as well as I have seen, as the English went after Dutch stragglers, and kept squadrons together, to some extent. They still tended to go directly after the Dutch, even when that meant heading directly into the wind, not a useful maneuver. Eventually, these situations were corrected.
The end result was that 52% of the Dutch fleet remained at the finish, with the English completely destroyed.
Obviously, this is nothing like the real world. Still, the sailing mechanics are very well done, and nothing that you can with miniatures can match the experience. I would like to be able to run two computers, and control both the English and Dutch fleets. I think that could be very instructive (I'm not prepared to play networked games, with someone outside of my LAN, for security reasons).
The Dutch naval officer Jacob van Meeuwen
We don't know, from Mollema, when Jacob van Meeuwen was born, but he died on 29 May 1678. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was extraordinary captain in 1658, ordinary captain in 1659, temporary Schout-bij-Nacht in 1672. After that, he was commander.
In 1657, he served under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea and on the Portuguese coast. In 1658, he commanded the Burg van Leiden
(42 guns) on the Portuguese coast. In 1659, he commanded the Hilversum
(52 guns) on the operation to the Sound, Funen and Nyborg. In 1661, he commmanded the Vrede
(42 guns) under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1664, he convoyed the Smyrna fleet, with Van Brakel, and distinguished himself in the defense against the English attack. In 1666, he commanded the VOC ship Amsterdam
(60 guns) in the Four Days and St. James Day Battles. In 1667, he commanded the Komeetstar
(60 guns) in the raid on Chatham. In 1672, he distinguished himself as a commander at Solebay. In 1673, he commanded the Spiegel
(70 guns) at Schooneveld and the Battle of the Texel. In 1675, he convoyed merchantmenfrom Portugal, and distinguished himself against the French assault in the Channel. In 1678, he distinguished himself as a convoy commander to Cadiz.
Dutch captain, Pieter Middelandt
We don't know when he was born, but Pieter Middelandt died on 2 June 1676. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was appointed captain in 1666 and Schout-bij-Nacht in 1676.
In 1666, he commanded the Haarlem
(42 guns) in the Four Days and the St. James Day Battles. In 1672, he commanded the Gideon
(60 guns) at the Battle of Solebay. In 1673, he commanded the Komeetstar
(70 guns) in the two Schooneveld battles. In 1674, he commanded the Oisterwijck
(56 guns) under De Ruyter in the operation to Martinique. In 1675/'76, he commanded the Steenbergen
(68 guns) under De Ruyter in operations in the Mediterranean Sea. He fought at Stromboli, Etna, and Palermo, and was drowned in the last battle.
This information is from Mollema's "Honor Roll".
Lievens de Zeeuw
This is what J.C. Mollema had to say about Lievens de Zeeuw:
He served the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier. He became a captain in 1636.
In 1637, he commanded the Wapen van Nassau
under Tromp before Dunkirk. In 1639, he fought at the Battle of the Downs. For his service, he received a gold medal. In 1643 of the blockading force before Dunkirk. In 1645, he served with Witte de With in the Sound. That was when they forced a fleet of merchantmen into the Sound without paying the toll to the Dutch. There is a picture on my website of De Zeeuw's ship sailing from the Vlie, with the fleet: Wapen van Nassau sailing from the Vlie in 1645
. De Zeeuw served as a temporary Schout-bij-Nacht, under Witte de With, in the rescue fleet sent to Brazil and fought at the battle for Bahia, after which De With removed him from his position.
More about Robert Sansum
Robert Sansum's flagship at the Battle of Lowestoft was the 3rd Rate, Resolution
(58 guns). Robert Sansum was killed at this battle. He had been a Rear-Admiral of the White in Prince Rupert's squadron.
Monday, February 02, 2004
The English naval officer Robert Sansum
During the Commonwealth, Robert Sansum commanded a number of ships:
From 1651 to 1653, he commanded the small frigate, the Bryer
From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the 4th Rate Adventure
From 1655 to 1660 (the Restoration), he commanded the larger 4th Rate, the Portsmouth
This information is from R.C. Anderson's List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660
, published by the Society for Nautical Research in 1964. I have found this to be a very valuable source.
About all we know about Fredrik Stellingwerff is that he served the Admiralty of Friesland at the Battle of Scheveningen. As I mentioned previously, his ship was the Zevenwolden
. The Zevenwolden
was captured at Scheveningen and sunk. Captain Stellingwerff went into captivity in England, where he died of disease, not that long after his capture.
Pieter van Brakel
Here is more information from J.C. Mollema's Honor Roll list.
Other sources may differ, apparently. This list was published circa 1941.
Pieter van Brakel lived from about 1624 to 29 December 1664. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was an Extraordinary-Captain in 1644 and an Ordinary Captain in 1653.
He served in the First Anglo-Dutch War. He fought at Dungeness and Terheide (Scheveningen) in the Bommel
(28 guns) under Maarten Harpertsz. Tromp. In 1654, 1656, and 1657, he served under De Ruyter in the Mediterranean Sea and on the Portuguese coast. In 1658 and 1659, he commanded the Huis te Kruiningen
(54 guns) on the Portuguese coast and in the Sound. In 1661, Captain ban Brakel was a convoy commander in the North Sea. In 1664, while defending the Smyrna convoy, he distinguised himself and was killed while fighting Sir Thomas Allin.
Why I have had reservations about Dr. Ballhausen's book
Before I had seen this book, I had great hopes for it. The history section of the Netherlands Navy recommended it to me. Michael Robinson, in his catalogue of Van de Velde paintings quoted the book. I had not seen R.C. Anderson's criticism in the 1938 Mariner's Mirror
My concern started when I had seen the latter article, which has the English orders-of-battle for the First Anglo-Dutch War. I gave up on the book, as a source, when I started to get information that contradicted what he had. I had also started checking his footnotes.
An example of his problems is that he says that Dirck Juynbol's ship, which was lost at the Battle of Dungeness, was the Hoop
. Instead, the ship was the Gelderland
His main problem seems to be that he extrapolated from limited information. R.C. Anderson said that Dr. Ballhausen seemed to draw up lists randomly. That is too harsh, as I can see what his influences were. Too often, he followed The First Dutch War
, after Dr. Gardiner died, when the series suffered from less knowledgable editing.
I have also found, when checking Dr. Ballhausen's footnotes (those that I have been able to check), that they often don't support the conclusions drawn. His footnotes are difficult, as they reference obscure, published sources. I have not been able to find an instance where he actually consulted archival sources.
Sunday, February 01, 2004
The Battle of Portland scenario-simulated
As the Dutch, I tried attacking George Monck, first. Monck's squadron was Southeast of St. Alban's Head, East-Northeast of Tromp's squadron. Penn and Blake were to the Southeast, where the Dutch had the wind. The Dutch could easily isolate Monck and beat him, and then turn on Blake and Penn. That really worked out well.
In another run, I used a different approach. I took the Dutch fleet against Blake and Penn, giving Monck time to close, unhindered, from the Northeast. That didn't work so well, as Monck caught then between two fires, as his squadron had approached unopposed. The Dutch finally won, but only after having defeated Penn and Blake. The last ships destroyed were from Monck's squadron.
Carl Ballhausen, Ph.D. and facts
I am about ready to concede that Dr. Ballhausen actually might have some useful facts in his book. I can think of two examples that I have seen this weekend.
One is that Jan Evertsz. de Liefde's ship might well have been named Jonas
. In any case, the ship was hired by the Rotterdam Directors, and in about mid-1652 carried 36 guns and had a crew of 125.
The second is that Fredrik Stellingwerff's ship, the Zevenwolden
might well have had 38 guns and a crew of 135.
In any case, I have been relying on Dr. Ballhausen for information about position of squadrons at battles, during the First Anglo-Dutch War. I have also assumed that his initial wind directions are accurate. In some cases, where I have lacked other data, I have drawn upon what he has, in building orders-of-battle and information about how ships were grouped into squadrons. I am checking, as best I can, against The First Dutch War
A new scenario for AOSII: the Battle of Portland (28 February-2 March 1653 (new style)
I now have implemented the battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War as scenarios for Age of Sail II/Privateers Bounty. I will e-mail anyone who is interested with a zip file with the scenarios and the usrships.ini file that implements the scenarios and ships.
I just finished Portland and tested the scenario in the simulator. The scenario plays quite well, the squadrons are laid out as is documented in Dr. Ballhausen's book.