- R. C. Anderson, “English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War,” The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.
- R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.
- R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.
- William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.
- Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
- Brian Lavery, The Ship of the Line, Vol.I, 1983.
Wednesday, December 15, 2004
English Captain: Robert Sanders
Robert Sanders (or Saunders) served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. From 1650 to 1652, he commanded the 6th Rate Star (22 guns and a crew of 80 men). In the Star, he fought at the Battle off Dover in May 1652. In 1652, he commanded the 4th Rate Assurance (36 guns) and fought at the Battle of the Kentish Knock. In 1653, he commanded the 4th Rate Ruby (42 guns). He was in William Penn's division at the Battle of the Gabbard. In this battle, William Penn was Admiral of the White. Robert Sanders also fought at the Battle of Scheveningen. From 1653 to 1654, he commanded the 3rd Rate Essex. From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the 4th Rate Dover (40 guns). He set sail at Christmas day, 1654, with William Penn's expedition to the West Indies. From 1657 to 1659, he commanded the 3rd Rate Torrington (52 guns). In 1665, Robert Sanders commanded the Loyal Merchant (44 guns) at the Battle of Lowestoft. He was in Sir William Berkeley's division. Sir William Berkeley was Rear-Admiral of the Red. At the time of the Four Days' Battle, Robert Sanders was captain of the new St. Patrick, and was fitting her out. He was at Bristol, still fitting out the St. Patrick at the time of the St. James's Day Battle. Sources: