Sunday, September 30, 2007
As you might expect, Dr. Ballhausen's list of Dutch captains at the Battle of Dover on 29 May 1652 has some errors. The surprise is that the list is in the "not that bad" category. He has listed most of the captains, although he has some, such as Reijnst Sevenhuijsen, who was not there. He omits other, such as Gijsbert Malcontent, who was there but is not included in Dr. Ballhausen's list in his book Der Erste Englisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1652-1654, 1923. The text is better than the lists. R. C. Anderson, who criticized the English lists, praised Dr. Ballhausen's account of the First Anglo-Dutch War in the Mediterranean Sea.
Saturday, September 29, 2007
In 1652 and up to March 1653, Albert Claesz Graeff commanded the Amsterdam hired ship Hollandia. This was a ship with dimensions of 130ft x 29ft x 13ft. The ship carried 18-12pdr, 14-6pdr, and 2-4pdr guns in 1652. I realized the Sijmon van der Aeck's ship, the Amsterdam hired ship named Amsterdam was very similar. The dimensions were the same: 130ft x 29ft x 13ft. The Amsterdam was armed differently, however: 10-12pdr, 8-8pdr, 8-6pdr, and 4-3pdr guns. The Hollandia seems to have been discarded after the Three Days Battle (the Battle of Portland). The Amsterdam served up to at least November 1653, although a different captain was in command after April 1653, Paulus Egbertsz Sonck. The Amsterdam was with Witte de With on the voyage to Norway from September to November 1653. These were originally both nominally 30 gun ships with a crew of 100 to 120 men.
Wednesday, September 26, 2007
I have enough going on beyond my research and writing, that blogging has considerably slowed. I hope to be picking up the pace, eventually.
Monday, September 24, 2007
This Rotterdam list dated 7 March 1652 has a ship with a name spelled St. Jan Babtista. I would be surprised if this is the same ship that we see in the fishery protection squadron.
The fluit ship St. Jan Babtista (St. John the Baptist) Dimensions in Maas feet: 113ft x 21-1/2ft x 11ft x 4-1/2ft Dimensions in Amsterdam feet: 123ft-3in x 23ft-5in x 12ft x 4ft-10in
Sunday, September 23, 2007
On 24 August 1652, Witte de With had been anchored off the Duintjes in his flagship, the Prinses Louise (36 guns). He was called to a meeting with Lords and Councillors, where they had reviewed what ships might be available to be the nucleus of a new fleet under Witte de With's command. They decided that there were between 16 and 18 ships that might be quickly cleaned and readied where they lay. I was curious as to where the Duintjes were located. I found a nice map that shows that the Duintjes are across from Vlissingen (Flushing):
Saturday, September 22, 2007
Friday, September 21, 2007
I have been studying the list of ships "at Vlissingen" after the Battle of the Gabbard (the Zeeslag bij Nieuwpoort) and I continued to be amazed at how many ships were lightly armed. Many ships were armed with 22 to 26 guns, and of those, only a few of 8 and 12pdr. For the Roskam (spelled Roscam in the document), there 4-12pdr and 2-8pdr, and the rest of the 24 guns were smaller. The Roscam was the ship commanded by Corstiaen Eldertszoon for most of the war. CORRECTION: I had thought that this was one of the ships wrecked or foundered in the storm off the Texel, but Carl Stapel points out that was not the case. Also, by September 1653, Jan Fransz Blom commanded the Roskam, not Corstiaen Eldertszoon. The Roskam arrived at the port of Rotterdam on 19 December 1653. By 8 January 1654, the Roskam was discarded and was transferred to the owners in Rotterdam. I believe that Corstiaen Eldertszoon was eventually appointed to command the Gorcum (or Gorinchem) after Willem Ariaensz Warmont was killed at the Battle of Scheveningen.
Tuesday, September 18, 2007
Lambert Bartelszoon commanded a ship named Eendracht that had been hired by the Admiralty of Zeeland in 1652. He spent much of the First Anglo-Dutch War with the main Dutch battlefleet, except for period during mid-1653, when he was engaged in warfare against English commerce. For a long time, when I saw the listing for his ship, with 18 guns and a crew of 100 men, I assumed that the 18 was a typographical error for 28. But no, that was not the case. He did command a lightly-armed frigate that would have been suitable as a scout. His ship was one of the 100 ships to be hired by the admiralties in 1652.
Saturday, September 15, 2007
One inventory that I have from 22 June 1653 is for the hired ship Jonas, commanded by Joris de Caullerij (made famous by a painting by Rembrandt van Rijn). The inventory is noteworthy for having a list of guns and their weights:
That inventory has gun weights (there are only 25 guns listed): 12pdr 3015 lbs 12pdr 2930 lbs 8pdr 2320 lbs 8pdr 2300 lbs 8pdr 2220 lbs 8pdr 2210 lbs 6pdr 2560 lbs 6pdr 2520 lbs 6pdr 2400 lbs 6pdr 2260 lbs 6pdr 2240 lbs 6pdr 2220 lbs 6pdr 2190 lbs 6pdr 2190 lbs 6pdr 2140 lbs 6pdr 2000 lbs 6pdr 1900 lbs 5pdr 1420 lbs 5pdr 1410 lbs 5pdr 1395 lbs 5pdr 1385 lbs 5pdr 1385 lbs 5pdr 1365 lbs 3pdr 730 lbs 3pdr 720 lbs
Friday, September 14, 2007
Thursday, September 13, 2007
In the summer and fall of 1652, Rens Sevenhuijsen commanded the Noorderkwartier hired ship Roode Leeuw (24 guns and a crew of about 85 men). David de Wildt's list of ships, dated 22 February 1652 gives the dimensions for a ship named Roode Leeuw: 126-1/2ft x 26-1/2ft x 13ft x 6-1/2ft. Some of the dimensions given in this list are either identical or very close to known dimensions for the ships mentioned, while in other cases, they are different. Because of that, we do not know if this is correct or not. I assume that the dimensions are at least plausible. We need to find the document for hiring the Roode Leeuw, and we may learn more. The Roode Leeuw was discarded by 4 November 1653. Perhaps this was one of the ships that received enough damage in the Battle of the Kentish Knock to be not worth repairing.
Tuesday, September 11, 2007
I have some notes about what I have assumed is the same ship. In one case, Frederick Bogaart's ship is called the Engel Michiel and in another case, it is called the Sint Michiel. Is it, in fact, the same ship or two ships? These are my notes, so far:
A-Dir Engel Michiel or Sint Michiel 1652 Dimensions: 22/02/1652 120ft x 27-1/2ft x 13ft x 6-1/2ft 27/03/1652 120ft x 27-3/4ft x 13ft x 6-3/4ft Guns: 20/01/1653 10-12pdr, 8-8pdr, 8-6pdr, 2-3pdr 28/04/1652 The ship the Engel Michiel, of the Greenland trade, arrived in the Texel 20/01/1653 The ship the St. Michiel, of the Greenland Company, was hired 31/05/1653 kapitein Frederick Bogaart, under Tromp's flag near Zeeland 20/06/1653 kapitein Frederick Bogaart, Engel Michiel, with 28 guns and a crew of 110 men list of ships in service between 8 May and 20 June 1653
Monday, September 10, 2007
The bottom line is that I have no definite information about the origins of the Frisian ship Groningen which fought in the Battle of the Sound in 1658 and that was captured by the English in 1665. Clearly, Dr. Weber and Vice-Admiral van Foreest thought that very likely, the Groningen was the ship listed in the Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654 as having been purchased (in 1652?). Dr. Weber used the dimensions of that ship for those of the Groningen in the book about the Four Days' Battle. The Groenewald was a mystery ship, as there is no sign of the ship having served in the First Anglo-Dutch War, despite what Vreugdenhil wrote in his list. The ship Groenewold was ship number 122 in Vreugdenhil's list. The Groenewold is described as entering service in 1652 and last being mentioned in 1655. He gives the dimensions as 132-1/2ft x 31ft x 13ft and says that the Groenewold carried 44 guns. Vreugdenhil shows the Groningen as first appearing in 1658, in time for the Battle of the Sound.
Sunday, September 09, 2007
The English captured the Middelburg Directors' ship Sint Laurens (30 guns) on 29 May 1652, the initial battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Sint Laurens was commanded by kapitein Bastiaan Tuynemans. He and his luitenant were taken prisoner, along with the rest of the crew. I have not seen any solid information about the Sint Laurens, in what I have received from archives in the Netherlands. I assume, based on minimal informaition, that the Sint Laurens was similar to the Leeuwinne, Johannes van Regermorter's ship, which carried 30 guns and had a crew of 105 men. The Leeuwinne was also a Middelburg Directors' ship. The Leeuwinne was 120ft long, and I would guess that the Sint Laurens was, as well. I also assume that the Sint Laurens also had a crew of 105 men.
Saturday, September 08, 2007
When I saw the Prinses Roijaal in a list, with data, I couldn't think which ship it was. Then I remembered that this was the Amsterdam Directors' ship commanded by Maarten de Graaf. The Prinses Roijaal actually arrived in the Texel roads on 8 April 1652 and joined the fleet, under the flag of Maarten Tromp, on 16 May 1652. He fought in the Battle of Dover on 29 May 1652 that opened the First Anglo-Dutch War. He was in the van squadron, under the command of temporary Vice-Admiral Jan Thijssen. The Prinses Roijaal was one of at least six ships lost in the storm off the Shetlands in early August 1652. That incident temporarily cost Maarten Tromp his command of the fleet. He was commonly held responsible for the disaster. If you are not familiar with the Prinses Roijaal, the dimensions of the ship were 127ft x 27ft x 12-1/2ft x 6-3/4ft. The armament consisted of 12-12pdr, 8-8pdr, 6-6pdr, and 2-3pdr guns.
Friday, September 07, 2007
I have not said this enough, in the past. We owe a great debt to Ron van Maanen for his pioneering research about Dutch warships in the archives in the Netherlands. As I have pointed out previously, this is a page about his current work on a different topic. I had heard about Ron van Maanen's work in Jan Glete's book Navies and Nations. Ron had focused more on the ships themselves, which has been very useful and interesting to see. We have gone off in a different direction that depends on knowing about orders of battle, naval officers, and the naval administration, as well as the ships.
Thursday, September 06, 2007
This is still a work in progress, but perhaps what I have would be useful. This is what I have right now for the Amsterdam ship Utrecht, built in 1633 for the years 1652 and 1653. The Utrecht was in the Mediterranean Sea until after the Battle of Livorno in March 1653:
A Utrecht or Uijtrecht 1633 Dimensions: 1652 120ft x 28-3/4ft x 11-3/4ft x 6-3/4ft 27/03/1653 120ft x 27-1/2ft x 12ft x 6-3/4ft Guns: 19/11/1652 18-12pdr, 12-6pdr 27/03/1653 18-12pdr, 12-6pdr, 2-4pdr 19/11/1652 the ship Uijtrecht, kapitein Roeteringh, with 30 guns and a crew of 110 men 27/03/1653 the ship Uijtrecht, commanded by kapitein Jan Roeteringh, armed with 32 guns and with a crew of 110 men and 20 musketeers
Monday, September 03, 2007
Once I figured out how to process photographs so that I could print them and so that they look more like the actual document, that has been addictive. I have been spending all my time doing that. I use 602Photo to do image adjustment and RGB color tuning. I also sometimes adjust the brightness and contrast. Then, I am using Paint to add the date that I received the photographs and the original file name. When there were two pages in one photograph, I create "a" and "b" copies, one for the left page and one for the right page. I use 602Photo to print on my Canon "all-in-one" box.
Sunday, September 02, 2007
I have been pleasantly surprised at how effective image processing can be for making photographs of documents more readable. The best program in the 602Software suite, in my opinion, is 602Photo. I am using that to process copies of photographs from the Nationaal Archief, in The Hague. Right now, I am processing photographs of handwritten documents from 1652, all relating to the Dutch navy, fleet, ships, and naval officers. The photographs all have a green tinge, for some reason. I am cropping the black background, making them easier to print, doing "image tuning", and adjusting brightness and contrast. One new thing that I am doing is adjusting "color channels". I can make the pages in the image look more like the actual document. I have been helped by my visit to the Nationaal Archief, back on 8 May 2007 with Carl Stapel, where I was able to see and handle some of the actual pages.
Saturday, September 01, 2007
One of the drawings that Nico Brinck sent me several years ago shows an iron Swedish 12pdr gun manufactured by Finspong. The gun had been purchased by the Admiraliteit van Friesland. The inside bore of the gun was 12cm or 4.7244 English inches. An Amsterdam inch is 283mm/ft divided into inches of 25.73mm. That is larger than the English inch of 25.4mm, so the bore in Amsterdam inches is 4.664in. The gun is 260cm long or 9ft-2in in Amsterdam feet. The length in English inches is 102.36 inches or 8ft-6.36 inches. The weight is 3208 lbs, compared to the 3480 lbs for the bronze 18pdr gun from 1632.