Sunday, April 30, 2006

I like how my English-to-Dutch conversion factors work

Frank Fox had encouraged me, a few years ago, to see if I could arrive at a system for converting English measurements to Dutch, so we could estimate the Dutch dimensions for ships that had been taken by the English. Ships that survived in service after the Restoration were recorded by Samuel Pepys, so we have them for our perusal. It is not beyond the realm of possibilty that there are dimensions for other ships in existence. The problem is the uncatalogued heaps of papers dating from the Interregnum and beyond. No one has taken the time to examine them, and only people like us, a very small segment of historical researchers, have any interest. Frank Fox was able to hire a researcher in Britain for look for him, and she found records about guns painted, so Frank was able to greatly expand his information about armament carried in the Four Days' Battle in 1666. I have wondered if there might also be records that show the circumstances under which the Dutch prizes were taken in 1652 and 1653. Some of them, we know, such as the ships hired by the Amsterdam Directors and taken at Portland and the Gabbard.

One of the Dutch fishery protection vessels taken on 22 July 1652

We know for certain that the Paul, which was a Dutch prize, was one of the fishery protection squadron ships taken on 22 July 1652 (the Paulus). The Paul is one of those ships that we actually have English dimensions. That is only because the ship survived in service until 1667, as the English naval administration under Samuel Pepys kept a tidy set of records. The Paulus was a ship hired by the Admiralty of the Maze and her captain was Dirk Claeszoon van Dongen. The ship carried 24 guns and had a crew of 80 men. Let us estimate her Dutch dimensions:
English measurements:

Length on the keel:           84ft
Beam outside of the planking: 25.5ft
Depth in hold at the center:   9.67ft

Estimated Dutch Dimensions in Amsterdam feet (283mm):

Length from stem to sternpost: 112ft
Beam inside the planking:       29ft
Hold at the side:               11ft
I have seen estimates that there were as many as 15 ships in the fishery protection squadron in Dr. Elias's book, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, Vol.II. We know the identities of 13 of these ships, although fewer of the captains. I have wondered if another Dutch prize used by the English, the Sophia, taken in 1652, might have been an otherwise unknown member of the fishery protection squadron. The Sophia's dimensions and estimates are as follows:
English measurements:

Length on the keel:           90ft
Beam outside of the planking: 26ft
Depth in hold at the center:  11ft

Estimated Dutch Dimensions in Amsterdam feet (283mm):

Length from stem to sternpost: 120ft
Beam inside the planking:       29.5ft
Hold at the side:               12.5ft
The Sophia seems to be too large, though, to have been relegated to the fishery protection squadron. She carried as many as 34 guns in the English service. Her other name was Speaker's Prize. The only question is where she came from. My own parochial view of the Battle of the Kentish Knock is that the only two Dutch losses were the Maria (Claes Sael's ship) taken as prize and the Burgh van Alkmaar (Gerrit Nobel's ship), which was destroyed by explosion. Perhaps the "Sophia" (we don't know her Dutch name) was a merchant prize that was good enough to be taken into the English naval service.

Saturday, April 29, 2006

Dutch ships taken by the English in the First Anglo-Dutch War

A number of Dutch ships were taken as prizes by the English in the First Anglo-Dutch War. We are not presently able to account for them all. Anderson credits the Bear as being taken in late 1652, which would make by theory about her origin not work. This is the list given by Anderson and Frank Fox:
English Name    Guns  Year   Dutch Name            Adm
Violet          38    1652   
Bear            36    1652/3 Zwarte Beer           Mo-Dir
Raven           38    1652
Princess Maria  38    1652   Prinses Roijaal Marie R
Welcome         36    1652  
Stork           36    1652
Arms of Holland 30    1652   Wapen van Holland     NQ
Sophia          26    1652
Peter                 1652
Middelburgh     32    1652   Middelburg            A
Waterhound      32    1652   Waterhond             R
Tulip           32    1652
Oak             28    1652   Ackerboom
Dolphin         30    1652
Falcon Flyboat  28    1652   Valck
Sampson         26    1652   Sampson van Enkhuizen En-Dir?
Paul            22-30 1652   Paulus                R
Falmouth        26    1652   Wapen van Rotterdam   R
Sampson         26    1652   Sampson van Hoorn     NQ
Advantage       26    1652   Eendracht
Plover          26    1652   Morgenster
Adam en Eva     20    1652   Adam en Eva           A
John Baptist    22    1652   Sint Jan Baptist      A
Mathias         38-52 1653   Sint Matheeus         A-Dir
Great Charity   36-46 1653   Groote Liefde         A-Dir
Black Raven     38    1653
Katherine       36    1653   Catharina             A-Dir
Golden Cock     36    1653   Vergulde Haan         Mi-Dir
Elias           36    1653   Elias                 A-Dir
Little Charity  32-28 1653   Liefde
Pelican prize   34-36 1653   Vergulde Pelicaen     A-Dir
Fortune         32-26 1653   Fortuijn
Half Moom       30-36 1653   Halve Maan            Mo-Dir
Westergate      26-34 1653   Westergo              F
Rosebush        24-34 1653   Rooseboom             A-Dir
Augustine       26-32 1653  
Church          20-26 1653
King David, storeship 1653   Koning David
Estridge, hulk        1653   Vogelstruis           A-VOC
Indian                1654   Roos, East Indiaman   A-VOC
At least some of these were captured merchantman, such as the Indian, taken very close to the end of the war. Hopefully, I have included all Dutch prizes, and none that are not Dutch.

Friday, April 28, 2006

New information

In discussions with Carl Stapel, and thanks to new information that he has found, we have a more complete picture of some events surrounding the return of ships that had been in Brazil in June 1652. Philips Schooneman had commanded a ship named Dolphijn in Brazil from 1649 until 1651, when he died, along with two other captains, presumably from illness. Marinus de Clercq had been there, commanding a WIC jacht named Ster. When Captain Schooneman died, Marinus de Clercq was appointed to command the Dolphijn and her brought her safely home in June 1652. Paulus van den Kerckhoff had also been in Brazil, commanding the Nijmegen (26 guns) (ex-Casteel van Medemblick). On his return voyage, his ship was intercepted by English frigates and was sunk. Since he was senior to Marinus de Clercq, he was appointed to command the Dolphijn (or Gulden Dolphijn). Marinus de Clercq was eventually given command of a newly hired ship (perhaps one of the 100 ships of 1652). After the Battle of Dungeness, Dirck Vijch and Marinus de Clercq were ordered to operate as privateers and continued to do so until July 1653. They brought in many prizes and also created legal problems due to suits by owners of ships that they had taken. There is documentary evidence that indicates that crewmen who had previously served under Captain Schooneman and were paid, were later paid while serving under Paulus van den Kerckhoff.

Thursday, April 27, 2006

Allert Janszoon and the Dubbele Arend (beating the topic to death)

I did more research on the topic of Allert Janszoon and the ship Dubbele Arend. The only link between Allert Janszoon and the ship named Dubbele Arend (or Dubbelden Arent) is on page 87, Vol.III of Dr. Elias's book Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeeewezen. In other places, we see Allert Janszoon described as being in the service of the Vlissingen Directors. The last mention of Allert Janszoon is in November 1652, when he was one of the captains who was courtmartialed for cowardice or disobedience at the Battle of the Kentish Knock. By December, his lieutenant, Teunis Post, was acting commander of the ship. The reference on page 87 has the list of captains and ships. There is at least one error in ship names, as we know from unpublished manuscripts that Lambert Pieterszoon's ship was named the Nassouw (34 guns), not the Hector.

Wednesday, April 26, 2006

So what ship did Allert Janszoon command in the First Anglo-Dutch War?

We have a modest amount of evidence about what ship Allert Janszoon commanded in the First Anglo-Dutch War. Hendrick de Raedt's pamphlet lists him as being in the service of the Vlissingen Directors, in a ship of 28 guns and a crew of 100 men. Dr. Elias, on page 87 of Vol.III of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, gives his ship's name as Dubbelden Arent, which I had interpreted as the Zeeland ship Dubbele Arend (in more modern spelling). He is not mentioned in after December 1652, in any source. I had thought that he was mentioned in the Staet van 1654, but I am not so sure, anymore. I need to check when I get home.

Tuesday, April 25, 2006

Tromp's fleet in May 1652 was largely composed of Directors' ships

Dr. Ballhausen has the only published list of ships that comprised Tromp's fleet on 29 May 1652. That list is rather suspect, as is everything produced by Dr. Ballhausen. Still, it is all we have, to date. Many, if not the majority of ships were Director's ships. The reason that we need to be skeptical is simply that Dr. Ballhausen can be right and he can be wrong. You need to check his references to know which is the case. He comes up with gems, such as the name of Jan de Liefde's ship, the Jonas. He also had the reference with supplied the number of guns carried by the Kameel (42 guns). On the other hand, he called Dirk Juynbol's ship the Hoop, when it was actually named Gelderland. Once you saw where the name came from, you could dismiss the Hoop as being wrong (it came from an obviously fictional list of ships from an unknowledgable English source). A feature of Dr. Ballhausen's research is that he only used published sources, although they might be obscure sources. He never used materials from the Nationaal Archief, almost inexplicably.

Monday, April 24, 2006

Paulus van den Kerckhoff commanded the Nijmegen

Dr. Elias wrote in a note on page 84, in De Vlootbouw in Nederland, that Paulus van den Kerckhoff commanded the ship that he spelled Nijmeghen. The Nijmeghen, originally named Casteel van Medemblick, was purchased by the Admiralty of the Maze on 28 March 1645. The Nijmeghen was 105 Maas feet long, which is about 115 Amsterdam feet. Maas feet were divided into 12 inches, and were about 308mm, while Amsterdam feet were divided into 11 inches and were about 283mm. It was the Nijmeghen which was sunk by the English while it was returning home from Brazil in June 1652.

Sunday, April 23, 2006

De Sneuper on Joost Bulter and the Kameel

De Sneuper lists Joost Bulter and the Kameel. They say that the Kameel was a Groningen Director's ship, which I had thought to be the case, at one point. The explanation of the 50 Directors' ships to be hired in 1652 included one Groningen ship. What changed my thinking on this was that Dr. Elias called the Kameel a ship belonging to the Admiralty of Friesland. The list of ships at Vlissingen in July 1653, which lists all the ships at the Battle of the Gabbard, and gives their fates, also says that the Kameel was a ship belonging to the Admiralty of Friesland. Sources:
  1. H. T. Colenbrander, Bescheiden uit vreemde archieven omtrent de groote Nederlandsche zeeoorlogen 1652-1676, 1919
  2. Eimert Smits, De Sneuper web site, Vereniging van Archiefonderzoekers te Dokkum
  3. List of ships at Vlissingen in July 1653, 1653

Saturday, April 22, 2006

Joost Bulter's ship

Joost Bulter commanded a brand new ship at the Battle of the Gabbard. This was a ship that had been recently built for the Admiralty of Friesland, perhaps as part of the new building program. That might mean that we would know the ship's approximate dimensions: about 130ft x 32ft x 12ft. Perhaps the new Zevenwolden was of a similar size.

I realized that Dr. Ballhausen had a reference about Joost Bulter's ship from The Life of Richard Deane, one of the more obscure books that I own. On page 649 of that biography, it says that Joost Bulter's sunken ship carried 42 guns. The ship is not mentioned by name.

On page 94 of Dr. Elias's book, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, Vol.V, Joost Bulter's ship is named Kameel.

Vol.V of The First Dutch War, on page 22, has C. T. Atkinson's translation of Tromp's account of the Battle of the Gabbard from Aitzema, Vol.III, page 821. I happen to own Aitzema (Saken van Staet en Oorlogh), and the statement is actually "capiteyn Joost Bulter van Stadt en Lande". C. T. Atkinson had translated this as "Captain Joost Bulter of the Town and Country", as if the name of his ship was named Stad en Lande, a very plausible Friesland ship name. Stad en Lande is much more plausible than Kameel, to my mind. The whole passage translated by Atkinson is: "There was also lost in the heat of the struggle Captain Joost Bulter of the Town and Country which went down with about thirty men, the rest being saved by Captain Willem van der Zaan, who was next to the sinking ship, and that evening the enemy's fleet was reinforced by six or seven ships, some say more." My reading would be that Joost Bulter was from the "Stad en Lande" (Groningen).

In Oud Holland 17 (1899), my translation of the passage from the article about Willem van de Velde de Oude says:

"While De Ruijter thus won the wind from Lawson, Tromp's squadron lay between those of Lawson and Monk, and the first of these was caught between two fires. This masterly tactic achieved only partial success, because Monk and Lawson quickly could recover, and because Tromp's guns were not strong enough to sufficiently damage even a weaker enemy in a short time, and to put them out of the battle. 1) The struggle was now a general melee, where by the English broke through Dutch fleet to win the windward side. In this furious battle, we look for Lawson to cut off the captains Willem van der Zaan and Joost Bulter. The ship of the last, the Kameel, sank; Van der Zaan rescued himself. One hour after sunset, the ship of Cornelis van Velsen blew up, due to gunpowder in the air. The night brought an end to the struggle. Both fleets drifted, due to wind and tide, towards the Flemish coast, not far from Nieuport."

The Oud Holland article, therefore, also calls Joost Bulter's ship the Kameel.

Friday, April 21, 2006

Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer's squadron

From Dr. Elias, we find that Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer, whose permanent rank was kapitein-ter-zee, was a temporary squadron commander, acting as the admiral for the squadron. His temporary vice-admiral was Gideon de Wildt, who was appointed by the Admiralty of Amsterdam. His temporary schout-bij-nacht (rear-admiral) was Abel Roelantszoon Verboom. He was usually called Abel Roelants in the published literature. Sources:
  1. Johan E. Elias, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, Vol.VI, 1930
  2. Carl Stapel, personal communication "abel roelantz", 2005

Thursday, April 20, 2006

In September 1653, Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer was an acting flag officer

Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer had been stuurman of the Brederode in 1652. He eventually became Tromp's flag captain, when Abel Roelantsz was elevated to temporary flag officer. By September 1653, Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer was a temporary flag officer, himself, and squadron commander. He flew his flag on the Brederode. He and his squadron joined Witte de With's fleet on Saturday, 25 October 1653. He had a squadron of about 16 ships under his command, and had three merchant ships in company. They had sailed from the Texel on 12 October. De Ruyter indicated in his journal that the fleet had now grown to 76 ships and there were about 4oo merchant ships and five East Indiamen. By early 1654, the politicians had appointed Jacob van Wassenaer as the new fleet commander, as an unhappy compromise, and as a crutch for van Wassenaer, Egbert Meeuwssen Kortenaer was appointed has his flag captain on the new fleet flagship, the Eendracht (58 guns). He was eventually raised back to flag rank. His career had been marked by a slow advancement. In 1626, he was a constable. By 1636, he was a stuurman. In 1652, he was an opper-stuurman. By 10 April 1653, he was a captain. He jumped to Vice Admiraly on 8 May 1659, and Lieutenant-Admiral by 29 January 1665. Sources:
  1. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930
  2. Luc Eekhout, Het Admiralenboek: De Vlagofficieren van de Nederlandse marine 1382-1991, 1992
  3. Johan E. Elias, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, Vol.V, 1928
  4. Michael S. Robinson, Van de Velde Paintings, Vol.I, 1990

Strategy in the First Anglo-Dutch War

The First Anglo-Dutch War was a purely naval war. What is significant is that both the English and Dutch followed a fundamentally battlefleet-oriented naval strategy. The Dutch position was complicated by the fact that they needed to protect commerce at a time when they were unable to win battles. As long as Robert Blake commanded the English fleet, the Dutch were able to be competitive, even if they ended up losing, such as at the Kentish Knock or the Three Days' Battle (Portland). After George Monck became fleet commander, at first with Richard Deane, and then on his own, his mastery of line tactics made the Dutch position untenable. Even when the Dutch started to tentatively fight in an informal line, the disparity of ship strength and gunpower was so great as to render them unable to win. The Dutch answer was the building program that was started in early 1653 (with some purchases prior to that). The first larger ships came into service for the later battles, but they were insufficient to counteract the presence of so many small ships, so lightly armed. The problem was not really solved until the finish of the Second Anglo-Dutch War building program, when a large number of new ships were completed. By the beginning of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch finally solved their gun supply problem, so that ships like De Ruyter's flagship Zeven Provinciën were able to carry their full armament (in this case, a complete lower tier of 36 pounders).

Wednesday, April 19, 2006

We now know the name of Jacob Claesz Boet's ship

Jacob Claeszoon Boet (or Boot) served the Monnikendam Directors. We now know that the name of his ship was the Zwarte Beer (32 guns and a crew of 115 men). He was with the fleet in June 1652, and took part in the voyage to the Shetlands in July and August. He also fought in the Battle of Dungeness in December 1652 and the Three Days' Battle (Portland) from 28 February 28 until 2 March 1653. Carl Stapel says that he died shortly after the battle. Jan Corneliszoon Oly was appointed to replace him in early April 1653. Sources:
  1. James C. Bender, unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships 1600-1700", 2005
  2. Hendrik de Raedt, Lyste van de schepen van Oorloge onder het beleyt Admirael Marten Harpersz. Tromp, 1652
  3. Carl Stapel, personal communication "221 Monnikendam-dir Zwarte Beer", 2006

Tuesday, April 18, 2006

A possible candidate for the Sampson commanded by Robert Plumleigh

One obvious candidate for the Dutch ship taken be the English and later commanded by Robert Plumleigh is the Sampson, commanded by Jacob Pieterszoon Houck. That was ship hired by the Hoorn Directors and last seen in January 1653, when the ship was missing after a storm. That Sampson carried 30 guns and had a crew of 110 men.

Monday, April 17, 2006

English Captain: Robert Plumleigh

Robert Plumleigh served in the Commonwealth navy. He took command of a new Dutch prize named Sampson in early March 1653. We can only speculate as to which Dutch ship this was. Somewhere about April 1653, he was at Portsmouth, with the General's squadron. In July, he was in the Dover roads, tasked with commerce protection on the east coast. In September 1653, he still commanded the Sampson (32 guns). In December, he and his ship were at Plymouth, tasked to protected the collier trade. In December, the Sampson only carried 28 guns. In November 1653, he was nominated to command a new frigate building at Shoreham. He ended up being appointed to the Reserve, instead. From 1654 until the Restoration, he commanded the Reserve (44 guns), a 4th Rate. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910
  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.V, 1912
  4. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930

Sunday, April 16, 2006

Larger Noorderkwartier ships from 1625 to the 1640's

The Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier built some larger ships from 1625 up until the 1640's:
Eenhoorn, 30 guns   Built 1625 
   (the "Patriarch" of the Dutch fleet)

200 lasts

Length: 125ft
Beam:    29ft
Hold:    12ft (estimated)

Guns:
7-iron 12pdr
13-iron 10pdr
4-iron 8pdr
2-iron 6pdr
2-iron 4pdr
2-iron 3pdr

Eendracht, 41 guns   Built 1639

220 lasts (estimated)

Length: 130ft
Beam:    32ft
Hold:    12ft

Guns:
4-brass 24pdr
2-brass 18pdr
4-brass 12pdr
2-brass  9pdr
4-brass  6pdr
2-brass  4pdr
8-iron  18pdr
8-iron  12pdr
7-iron   8pdr


Prinses Roijael, 26 guns   Built 1641

Length: 125ft
Beam:    30ft
Hold:    11.5ft

Guns:
2-brass 24pdr
2-brass 18pdr
4-brass  6pdr
4-iron  12pdr
12-iron  8pdr


Jonge Prins, 28 guns   Built 1634

Length: 120ft
Beam:    28ft
Hold:    11.5ft

Guns:
2-brass 24pdr
2-brass 12pdr
8-iron  12pdr
8-iron   8pdr
2-iron   5pdr
4-iron   4pdr
2-iron   2pdr


Monnikendam, 38 guns  Built 1644
(Pieter Florissen's flagship in
the First Anglo-Dutch War)

Length: 120ft
Beam:    28.5ft
Hold:    11ft

Guns:
2-brass 12pdr
6-brass  6pdr
8-iron  18pdr
8-iron  12pdr
2-iron  10pdr
4-iron   6pdr
6-iron   4pdr
2-iron   3pdr

Wapen van Enkhuizen, 34 guns   Built 1645

Length: 120ft
Beam:    29ft
Hold:    11.75ft

Guns:
2-brass 18pdr
6-brass  6pdr
10-iron 12pdr
9-iron   8pdr
5-iron   5pdr
2-iron   3pdr
All this data is from the Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654 (the date is July 1654).

Saturday, April 15, 2006

English Captain: Edward Barrett

Edward Barrett served in the Commonwealth navy. From 1651 to 1652, he commanded the 6th Rate Lily (10 guns). In 1652, he may have commanded the Hunter (10 guns), a French prize used as a fireship. In 1653, he commanded the Great Gift (34 guns). In December 1653, he was on the voyage to Gotenborg, under the command of Christopher Myngs. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966
  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930

Friday, April 14, 2006

I can add to the biography of Pieter Adriaanszoon van Blocker

Back on 9 January 2006, I first wrote about Pieter Adriaanszoon van Blocker (sometimes just called Pieter Adriaanszoon). I figured out a few more things, so I am now in a position to do a longer biography. In November 1649, he left Brazil in command of the Noorderkwartier ship Witte Eenhoorn (30 guns). He had succeeded Jan Gijzen in command. He had been with Witte de With's relief squadron sent to try and retrieve the Dutch position in Brazil. Sadly, they were not given adequate support, and failed. From early 1652, he commanded a Hoorn Director's ship of 28 guns. In June 1652, he was with Tromp's fleet, and took part in the voyage to the Shetlands in July and August. He was a survivor of the storm. In mid-August, he was with Witte de With. He joined Witte de With's fleet on 18 October 1652, after the Battle of the Kentish Knock. In December 1652, he fought in the Battle of Dungeness. He was assigned to Pieter Florissen's squadron. In January 1653, he was missing from the fleet, after a storm. He is absent from the published literature after that, so we might speculate about his ship being lost in the storm or being captured by the English (one of the mystery prizes, perhaps). Dr. Ballhausen seems to be totally wrong about Pieter Adriaanszoon van Blocker taking part in the Battle of Portland, where he cites this last reference. Sources:
  1. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910
  2. Dr. Carl Ballhausen, Der Erste Englisch-Höllandische Seekrieg 1652-1654, 1923
  3. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898
  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900
  5. Dr. S. R. Gardiner, and C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.III, 1906
  6. W. J. van Hoboken, Witte de With in Braziliƫ, 1955
  7. Hendrik de Raedt, Lyste van de schepen van Oorloge onder het beleyt Admirael Marten Harpersz. Tromp, 1652

Thursday, April 13, 2006

I can augment my earlier article about Jacob Andrieszoon Swart

I originally wrote about Jacob Andrieszoon Swart on 12 February 2004. I believe that I can augment what I wrote then. He lived from 1620 to 8 May 1679. When he was pretty young, in 1645, he commanded the rechte Liefde (26 guns), a ship hired by the New Amsterdam Directors. He was with Witte de With's fleet that forced a fleet of merchant ships into the Sound without paying the toll to Denmark. In 1652 and 1653, he commanded the Vliegende Faam (28 guns), an Amsterdam Directors' ship. He took part in many of the operations and battles, including Tromp's voyage to the Shetlands in July and August 1652. By 1654, he commanded the Bommel, a regular warship of the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1656, he commanded the three-masted jacht Windhond (22 guns). He took part in the operation to blockade Danzig, under the command of Jacob van Wassenaer. He commanded the Huis te Kruiningen at the Battle of Lowestoft, where he was assigned to Lt-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer's squadron. In August, he was assigned to Cornelis Tromp's squadron in De Ruyter's fleet. In June 1666, he fought in the Four Days' Battle, where he commanded the Deventer (66 guns). He was assigned to the center division of Cornelis Tromp's squadron. He fought in the St. James's Day Battle in August 1666, where he commanded the Deventer (66 guns). Again, he was assigned to Cornelis Tromp's squadron. In May and July 1667, he commanded the Stad en Lande with the fleet operating in the Channel. Sources:
  1. James C. Bender, unpublished manuscript "Dutch Directors' Ship Information 1652-1653", 2004
  2. Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijif van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, 1687
  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996
  4. G. W. Kernkamp, De Sleutels van de Sont, 1890
  5. Hendrik de Raedt, Lyste van de schepen van Oorloge onder het beleyt Admirael Marten Harpersz. Tromp, 1652
  6. Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1654, July 1654

A small Brederode poster is now available

Sorry for the commercial announcement, but I have wanted to have color posters for five years. Only now have I found a way to do that. This is only a small start, but we now have a store at CafePress.com where one of the products that is available is the small Brederode poster of the painting (or at least, one alternative of that). There are other products, as well, but I really wanted a Brederode poster to see how it would be. The nice thing is that the price is pretty low, although it is quite small, as well. I apologize again, as I will be cross-posting this announcement, as well.

This is an alternate look product line for the Brederode, although the image size didn't make for a good poster of any size. The pictures don't show the color and shade variations well, as the bottom one has lighter blues, while the upper one has a darker, browner tone:

Wednesday, April 12, 2006

Check out our new store at CafePress.com

We now have a store at CafePress.com where you can buy "Anglo-Dutch War gear" (so to speak). There is a Zeven Provinci&eumln product line, a Brederode photo product line, and a Brederode painting product line. (Come visit our store on CafePress!) There is more, as well. We plan to have color posters and a second edition our our Brederode booklet with a color cover and expanded and updated information.

English Captain: Peter Whittey (Whitty, or White)

Peter Whittey (Whitty, or White) served in the Parliamentarian and Commonwealth navies. In 1643, he commanded the Notterdam (6 guns abd a crew if 29 men). He was assigned to the Summer guard in 1643. In 1644, he commanded the Crescent (14 guns, a crew of 50 men, and a size of 140 tons). He was assigned to the Summer Guard in 1644. In 1646, he commanded the hired merchantman President, which was lying in the Thames in the summer. In 1653, he commanded the hired merchantman Freeman. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966
  3. J. R. Powell, The Navy in the English Civil War, 1962

So, how about Anglo-Dutch Wars blog gear, posters, and books?

I read PhD Comics. They have "Piled High and Deeper" gear for sale from Cafe Press. I like the idea of having Anglo-Dutch Wars gear, color posters (admittedly, small sizes), and perhaps a second edition of my Brederode booklet.

Tuesday, April 11, 2006

English Captain: Nicholas Heaton

Nicholas Heaton served in the Commonwealth navy. He was said to have served well as trumpeter's mate on the 2nd Rate Triumph. As a reward, he was promoted to captain. From 1653 until 1655, he commanded the 4th Rate Sapphire (38 guns). At one point, he fought a successful action against Sir Edward Spragge (in a ship of 26 guns) and his brother-in-law, Captain Colaert (in a ship of 36 guns), son of the famous Dunkirk admiral. He drove them back into port, as they had tried to break out on a privateering voyage. He fought in the Battle of the Gabbard in June 1653, when he was assigned to the General's division in the Red Squadron. He very likely fought in the Battle of Scheveningen, in August. He was with the active fleet in September 1653. In December, his ship was lying at Portsmouth. By September 1655, he was sick and was absent from the Sapphire in November. From 1656 to 1660 (to the Restoration), he commanded the 4th Rate Gainsborough (eventually renamed Swallow, at the Restoration). Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966
  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol. VI, 1930
  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898

Monday, April 10, 2006

The two Genoese ships in the First Anglo-Dutch War

In 1653, the Dutch took over two ships building for Genoa. One was somewhat larger than the other. The largest ship was named Huis te Zwieten and the smaller ship was named Huis te Kruiningen. In early August 1653, Witte de With made the Huis te Zwieten his flagship and Michiel De Ruyter flew his flag on the Huis te Kruiningen. Neither ship was ready in time for the Battle of Scheveningen, so Witte de With was again in the Vrijheid while Michiel De Ruyter was apparently back in the Witte Lam. After Scheveningen, both ships eventually come into service. Witte de With and De Ruyter used the two ships on the expedition to Norway, where they were to convoy back home a large number of merchant ships and a few East Indiamen. Those ships had taken refuge in Norwegian waters to avoid capture by the blockading English fleet. The two ships managed to survive the great storm that hit the convoying fleet just short of the Texel. One thing that Witte de With and Michiel De Ruyter quickly learned was that the Huis te Zwieten and the Huis te Kruiningen desperately needed girdling, as they could usually not open their lower deck guns, due to lack of displacement and inadequate stability. By July 1654, Witte de With was able to transfer his flag to the Brederode, his perferred ship, while Michiel De Ruyter flew his flag from the Huis te Zwieten. We know the Dutch dimensions for both ships (in Amsterdam feet of 283mm) and their armaments in July 1654:
Ship              Length Beam Hold   Brass Guns               Iron Guns
Huis te Zwieten    146ft 36ft 14ft   10-24pdr,6-12pdr,10-6pdr 16-18pdr,18-12pdr
Huis te Kruiningen 140ft 34ft 13.5ft 6-18pdr,6-12pdr,8-6pdr   drakes 18-18pdr,16-8pdr
The two ships were girdled after the storm in early November 1653. The Huis te Zwieten eventually was given to the VOC, and served in the Second Anglo-Dutch War, in 1665, until she was taken by the English. Frank Fox has said that she was the best Dutch ship taken by the English.

Sunday, April 09, 2006

The Dutch ship Prins in 1653

There are references in the published literature to a ship named Prins in 1653. The ship was hired by the Rotterdam Directors. I believe that the ship mentioned is the shi that Michael Robinson, in the Van de Velde Paintings book, called the Prins te Paard. Up until the Battle of Portland, the Prins te Paard was commanded by Corstiaen Corstiaenszoon. He was killed in the battle. After that, the ship was commanded by Jacob Cleijdijck. His original ship, the Meerman, was sunk at Portland. He was given the Prins te Paard after that.

Saturday, April 08, 2006

There is an interesting discussion of the Dutch participation in the Armada campaign in 1588

J. C. A. Schokkenbroek has a chapter in P. Gallagher & D. W. Cruickschank, God's Obvious Design: Papers for the Spanish Armada Symposium, Sligo, 1988 titled "The Role of the Dutch Fleet in the Conflict of 1588". For whatever reason, Schokkenbroek tries to minimize the importance of the Dutch in the Armada campaign. The main Dutch role in the campaign was to contain the Duke of Parma, so that he could not send an invasion force to England. Schokkenbroek argues that the vessels provided to the Duke were not suitable, so that even if they had broken out, they would not have arrived in England. Those which could have escaped the Dutch blockade would have been easy targets for English guns. One feature of the campaign was the rivalry and ongoing conflict between Holland and Zeeland. Apparently, the Zeeuwse would have liked to be an independent state. The number of Dutch vessels involved in various roles was large, in the neighborhood of 400. There were 90 blockading Flanders, 32 blockading Sluys, which had fallen to the Duke of Parma, 135 blockading Antwerp, 100 blockading Delfzijl, and another 50, which were eventually added to the fleet on the coast of Flanders. They were generally small, the largest being perhaps 200 tons, and the others being as small as 25 tons.

Friday, April 07, 2006

Dutch Captain: Jan Duijm

Jan Duijm served the Admiralty of Zeeland. He definitely fought in the Battle of Portland. He must have been in Michiel De Ruyter's squadron, and his most prominent act was to use his ship to tow Michiel De Ruyter's flagship, the Witte Lam (40 guns), through the last two days of the battle, after the Witte Lam was dismasted during the first day. We do not see Jan Duijm mentioned again until 1658, when he commanded the Zeeland ship Prins Willem (28 guns, and a crew of 75 sailors and 25 soldiers). His ship was victualled for four months. He fought in the Battle of the Downs, where he was assigned to Lt-Admiral van Wassenaer's squadron. Sources:
  1. list of ships dated 8 August 1658, Staten Generaal, 1.01.06, inventory number 12580.16
  2. G. L. Grove, Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), 1907

Thursday, April 06, 2006

English Captain: Thomas Keysar

Thomas Keysar served in the Commonwealth navy, and possibly before that, in the Parliamentarian navy. From 1649 to 1650, he commanded the Royalist prize Leopard's Whelp (10 guns). In 1651, he commanded the Royalist prize Swan (22 guns). In the sources that I have, his activities are not mentioned, and he is not mentioned as serving after 1651. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966

Wednesday, April 05, 2006

Roberto Barrazzuti will be presenting at a symposium in September 2006

Our friend and occasional contributor, French researcher Roberto Barrazzuti, will be presenting at a symposium in September 2006 at Granville in Normandy. The symposium is on the admirals and admiralty. Roberto will be speaking about the french, english and dutch officers who served in the navy of King Louis XIV.

Tuesday, April 04, 2006

I just received my copy of De Admiraliteit van Amsterdam in Rustige Jaren 1713-1751

I had seen a reference to this book on a website that had Dutch naval officer information from 1688 to 1784 (I think). The book is by J. R. Bruijn, and is called De Admiraliteit van Amsterdadm in Rustige Jaren 1713-1751, published in 1970. The book is a paperback, and I bought my copy from a bookseller in Germany, through ABE Books. The book includes a list of flag officers and captains in the service of the Admiralty of Amsterdam. There is also a list of ships built in this period, as well as a list of the charters (the dimensions to be used for ships). I had almost given up hope that I would receive the book, as I received the book 48 days after purchasing it online.

Monday, April 03, 2006

Dutch Captain: Andries de Boer

Andries de Boer served the Admiralty of Zeeland, according to Dr. Elias in Vol.III of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen. He commanded a ship named Zeelandia (32 guns) in the Mediterranean Sea. He fought in the Battle of Monte Cristo on 27 August 1652, under the command of Johan van Galen. Joost Willemszoon Block was also in the Mediterranean Sea at this time. He also served the Admiralty of Zeeland. His ship was variously called Zeelandia or Wapen van Zeeland. This was also a 32-gun ship. Because he still commanded this ship in July 1654, we know that he commanded the 118ft-long ship. Andries de Boer took part in a drunken party on board the captured English frigate Phoenix on 20 November 1652. As fate would have it, this was when Owen Cox staged an attack with men in three boats. The Phoenix was mostly abandoned, after the party, so the attack succeeded. Cornelis Tromp dived through a nearby window in the stern in escape, but Andries de Boer was taken prisoner with the Phoenix. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "The First Dutch War in the Mediterranean," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.49, No.4, November 1963
  2. Johan E. Elias, Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewezen, Vol.III, 1925
  3. "Staet van Oorlog te Water" for the year 1654

Sunday, April 02, 2006

Dutch Captain: Jan Hollaer (Hollare)

Jan Hollaer (Hollare) served the Admiralty of Zeeland. Between at least 1626 and 1629, he commanded the ship Postpaert (crew of 85 sailors). The Postpaert was apparently a ship of 140 lasts. I have generally estimated that a vessel of 140 lasts might be 112ft x 25.5ft x 11ft, or even slightly smaller. He took part in the second expedition to Spain, from 12 November 1626 to 10 July 1627. This was commanded by Laurens Reael. One question is if this Jan Hollaer (Hollare) is different from the Jan Hollare, son of Vice-Admiral Marinus Hollare. The son of Marinums Hollare commanded his fathers' ship (the Samson) from 1642 to 1645, with Pieter Hollare as his lieutenant. Sources:
  1. Carl Stapel, personal communication "more findings about Zeeland", 10 February 2006
  2. Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1628
  3. Staet van Oorlog te Water for the year 1629
  4. Carl Stapel, unpublished manuscript "Tweede Nederlandse Engelse vloot in12 november 1626 tot 10 juli 1627 naar Spanje", 18 June 2005

Saturday, April 01, 2006

English Captain: Robert Storey

Robert Storey served in the Commonwealth navy. From 1653 to 1654, he commanded the Dutch prize Cardiff (ex-Fortuijn). In 1654, he commanded the Dutch prize Arms of Holland (Herman Munnick's ship Wapen van Holland, captured on 22 July 1652). From 1655 to 1656, he commanded the 4th Rate Pelican. From 1656 to 1657, he commanded the 4th Rate Hampshire. He was in the Mediterranean Sea with Robert Blake and took part in the capture of the Spanish Plate fleet, loaded with riches. He took the dispatch back to England, informing the government of the success. Finally, in 1658, he commanded the 3rd Rate Fairfax. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964
  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966
  3. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910
  4. Michael Baumber, General-at-Sea, 1989

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