Tuesday, May 31, 2005

The Dutch fleet sent to the Caribbean in 1677

I have not seen this list of ships dispatched to the Caribbean in 1677 to fight the French anywhere else. Thanks to Mr. Carl Stapel who compiled the list. All ships belonged to the Admiralty of Amsterdam. I have done only minor editing. We are the beneficiaries of Mr. Stapel's work.
  • Adm Date Built, Ship, Guns, Captain
  • A 1665 Beschermer, 50 guns Jacob Binckes
  • A 1654 Huis te Kruiningen, 56 guns Roemer Vlacq
  • A 1665 Agatha, 50 guns Jan Bont (he was later beheaded )
  • A 1643 Zeelandia, 44 guns Pieter Constant
  • A 1668 Leiden, 34 guns Galtie Galtjes ( he was a commandeur for captain Richewijn [who] died on the way to the West-Indies ).
  • A 1661 Middelburg, 36 guns Jan Swart
  • A 1661 Popkensburg, 24 guns Pieter Stolwijk
later in september 1676 they were joined by:
  • A 1644 Star, 30 guns Pieter Cooreman
  • adviesjachten A ? Fortuijn commandeur Jan Erasmus
  • A 1675* Kreeft, 8 guns Gerrit Soeteman
  • A ? Soete lam
supplyships
  • A 1674* Sperha Mundi, 9 guns
  • A Koning David
  • A Monnik
  • A 1667* 26 st
  • Wapen van de Hertog van York ( a former fireship from 1667 ! ).
I may not have divided the list correctly. If not, I will correct it later.

Monday, May 30, 2005

Jan Jacobszoon van Nes (de Oude Boer Jaep)

Much of this information is thanks to Mr. Stapel. Jacob van Nes had two sons. One was Jan Jacobszoon van Nes (de Oude Boer Jaep). He lived from about 1600 until 1672. The other was his brother, also was named Jan Jacobszoon van Nes (de Jonge Boer Jaep). The first Jan Jacobszoon van Nes served the Admiralty of the Maze from 1614 until 1672. In 1652, he commanded the Rotterdam ship Gorcum (30 guns). In July and August, he had been in Tromp's fleet on the voyage to the Shetlands. He also fought in the Battle of the Kentish Knock. He was captured but his ship was released, as it was thought to be in a sinking condition. This incident came close to ending his career. Eventually, he was reinstated and served as De Ruyter's flag captain in the Four Days' Battle and the St. James's Day Battle. In 1672, he was given command of the Klein Hollandia (54 guns). He died defending the Smyrna Convoy against Sir Robert Holmes's squadron in 1672. His brother of the same name died in 1652, on board his son's ship, the Gelderland, at Le Havre. His son was Jan Janszoon van Nes (1631-1680), lieutenant on the Gelderland. The Gelderland had initially been detained in an English port at the start of the First Anglo-Dutch War but was apparently released. Sources:
  1. James C. Bender, unpublished manuscript "Dutch Ships 1620-1700", 2004.

  2. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.

  3. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900.

  4. Hendrick de Raedt, pamphlet "Copye een Brief, gescreven van Capiteyn Hendrick de Raedt, leggende in Hitland, voor de Baey van Schalaway, den 10 Aug. 1652", 1652.

  5. Carl Stapel, correspondence about the Van Nes family from March 2005.

Sunday, May 29, 2005

William Penn said that they had taken a "Wapen van Medemblick" at the Kentish Knock

William Penn wrote of taking a ship that he called the Arms of Medemblick (Wapen van Medemblick) at the Kentish Knock. He said that he recommended Captain Norman to command her in the English service. That seems pretty solid, although it is impossible to correlate that to what we know from the Dutch side. For example, the only losses mentioned were the Maria, Claes Sael's ship, captured, and the Burg van Alkmaar, Gerrit Nobel's ship, sunk. John Mildmay wrote of having three Dutch captains on board his ship, including Jan Jacobszoon van Nes, apparently, who commanded the Rotterdam ship Gorcum. Apparently, the Gorcum had been badly shot up, and John Mildmay had takeon off captain and crew, expecting the Gorcum to sink. Sources:
  1. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900.

John Mildmay's manuscript from 9 October 1652

I suspect that the 9 October 1652 date on John Mildmay's document is "New Style", as it appears in a Dutch book. John Mildmay's document is entitled: "The examinacion of Captain John Jacobson [Jan Jacobszoon van Nes] aged 52 yeares taken on board the Nonsuch by Captain John Myldmay". The document says:
Sayth that hee is an Inhabitant of Roterdam and Captian of the shipp Gorcum a frigatt betweene 30 and 40 peeces of ordinance (being the States shipp) and Rear Admirall to the Holland Admirall White (de With; that they have bin forth about a month and that they were in the Channell as hye as Beachy, butt by strong wind put to leeward as ffarr as Newport, and about 10 dayes agoe they mett Admirall Rutter with his ffleet off Ostend; he came from the West of England and sendinge part of his ffleet home wantinge vicutall, himselfe with 16 more of the best, two being East India shipps, joyn'd with Admirall White, so they came all together to the backe of the Goodwin Sand to seeke the Parliaments fleet to fight them; and that 2 dayes before wee mett them Admirall White called Counsaile and proposed to goe into the Downes to fight the Parliaments, but most of the Captaines were unfwillinge to itt, butt in fine White sayd he would goe, but the Parliaments ffleet coming forth prvented them. An further said nott.
This is quoted in its entirety on page 24 in Dr. Colenbrander's book Bescheiden uit Vreemde Archieven omtrent De Groote Nederlandsche Zeeoorlogen 1652-1676, Vol.I, 1919. It doesn't really address the issue about the seeming misunderstanding about Gideon de Wildt, but I suspect that the officer captured was Jan Jacobszoon van Nes (1600-1672), not Gideon de Wildt.

Saturday, May 28, 2005

The story in Hainsworth and Church and Baumer seems to originate with John Mildmay's account

John Mildmay tells a story that Michael Baumber and Hainsworth and Churches repeat. The problem that I have with it is that no one but John Mildmay says anything about it. Besides, there are contradicting facts known to be true (about Gideon de Wildt and his ship, the Vrede). John Mildmay's story is recounted on pages 268 to 272 of The First Dutch War, Vol.II. I also looked at Colenbrander, Vol.I at John Mildmay's piece on page 24. There, he writes about Jan Jacobszoon and the frigate Gorcum. Carl Ballhausen is also referenced, but I tend to dismiss him out of hand, unless I can verify that he is correct (which he occasionally is).

I'm baffled at where reports that Gideon de Wildt's ship was taken at the Battle of the Kentish Knock

Gideon de Wildt's ship during the First Anglo-Dutch War was the Amsterdam ship Vrede (42-44 guns) built in 1650. The Vrede survived the 2nd Anglo-Dutch War,although it was not mentioned afterward. Both Michael Baumber and Hainsworth and Churches maintain the Gideon de Wildt was captured at the Kentish Knock, along with his ship and one other. Another ship was destroyed by explosion (the Noorder-kwartier ship Burgh van Alkmaar). In the battle, De Ruyter commanded the van, Witte de With the center, and Gideon de Wildt the rear. I have been checking references in The First Dutch War, Vol.II, and see nothing to indicate that Gideon de Wildt's ship was captured, along with him. The only captured ship that we know about is Claes Sael's ship, the Maria (30 guns). Dr. Elias's only mention of Gideon de Wildt at the Kentish Knock was that he commanded the rear. That is on page 75 of Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons zeewezen. Dr. Elias states on page 81 that the only Dutch losses were Gerrit Nobel's ship, the Burgh van Alkmaar, and Claes Sael's ship, the Maria. Sources:
  1. Dr. Johan E. Elias, Schetsen uit de geschiedenis van ons zeewezen, Vol.III, 1925.
  2. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.II, 1900.

  3. Roger Hainsworth and Christine Churches, The Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-1674, 1998.

Friday, May 27, 2005

From Charles Boxer's biographical sketch of Witte de With

This is from Charles Boxer's book about Tromp's journal from 1639. The book is not as useful as it should be, due to an inadequate index. I have supplemented and corrected Boxer's account. Apparently, at the time of the Battle of the Downs, Witte de With flew his Vice-Admiral's flag on the Prins Frederick Hendrick, whose captain was Pieter Pieterszoon de Wint. Charles Boxer gives his dates as 1599-1658. He served in the East Indies in 1616. There were operations in 1619 involving Batavia (which is the modern Jakarta). In 1623, he served with the West India Company. He returned to the East India Company (VOC), and took part in the around-the-world voyage of "the Nassau fleet". He served under Piet Hein at Matanzas (in the capture of the Spanish silver fleet, where he was Piet Hein's flag captain, apparently) and Maarten Tromp at the Battle of the Downs. He captured Matthijs Rombout, the Dunkirk privateer, in June 1640. In 1645, Witte de With, in the newly completed Rotterdam flagship Brederode, commanded a fleet that convoyed a large number of merchant ships pass the Sound without paying the toll to the Danes. Next, he was given the thankless task of commanding a relief force to Brazil. His small squadron had insufficient resources and was totally unsupported from the Netherlands. He left, without orders, to preserve what was left of his squadron, and was imprisoned by Prince Willem II. As teh situation had deteriorated, some of his crews had mutinied and set sail for home. He was restored to the service in time for the First Anglo-Dutch War. He commanded at the Battle of the Kentish Knock and fought in the Battles of the Gabbard and Scheveningen. With Michiel De Ruyter serving under him, he conducted an operation to Norway to bring home returning merchant ships. The fleet was caught in a winter storm, and sustained considerable losses. Witte de With had warned against such a voyage, but was dispatched anyway. He was killed at the Battle of the Sound on 8 November 1658, when his flagship, the Brederode, ran aground while fighting the Swedes, and the Brederode was mercilessly raked by Swedish ships. Boxer says that he was hated my most of those serving with him and under him, as he was very rigid and had a bad temper. Interestingly enough, Michiel De Ruyter is credited with a bad temper as well. Witte de With had the added issue that he was strong Republican, in a service where most officers were Orangists.

Thursday, May 26, 2005

Dutch Captain: Albert Claeszoon de Graeff

Albert Claeszoon de Graeff served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. In 1652, he commanded the hired ship Hollandia (32 guns). In June and July, he was in Witte de With's squadron. In July 1652, he sailed with the fleet under Tromp's command that sailed to the Shetlands. His ship survived the storm and he attended Tromp's council of war before they sailed for home. On August 14, he was still under Witte de With's command. In early 1653, his ship was lying off of the island of St. Martin. In 1659, he commanded the Marseveen (40 guns) in De Ruyter's fleet that was operating in the Baltic. In June 1665, he commanded the Huis Tijdverdrijf (58 guns) and fought in the Battle of Lowestoft. He was assigned to Jacob van Wassenaer's squadron. Sources:
  1. C. T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.IV, 1910

  2. Gerard Brandt, Het Leven en Bedrijif van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, 1687.

  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  4. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

  5. G. L. Grove, Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60), 1907.

Retranslating Mollema's piece on Maarten Tromp

Given that I misunderstood Tromp's relationship to Piet Hein, I thought that I needed to retranslate J.C. Mollema's entry for Tromp:

23 April 1598-10 Aug 1653. Served the Admiraliteit of the Maze. Ship's boy in 1606. Quartermaster in 1617. Stuurman in 1618. Lieutenant in 1622. Captain in 1624. Lieutenant-Admiral in 1637.

1607 Served with his father under Van Heemskerck in the Battle of Gibraltar. 1610 sailed with a merchantman and was captured by an English pirate. 1621 a Moroccan captive. 1622-24 Served in the blockade fleet on the Flemish coast. 1626 Distinguished himself in a fight with 6 Dunkirkers. 1629 Flag captain of Piet Hein, witnessed his death, captured a Dunkirker, and was rewarded with a golden chain. 1630-34 Squadron commander in the blockade service before Dunkirk under Liefhebber, captured various privateers. 1638 Organized the tightening of the blockade of Dunkirk. 1639 Lead in the fight before Dunkirk and the Battle of the Downs. 1640-44 Blockade commander before Dunkirk. 1652-53 Commander-in-chief. There was the flag incident with Blake (that started the war). He led in the Battle of Dungeness, the Battle of Portland (the Three Days' Battle), the Battle of Nieuwpoort (the Gabbard), and Terheide (Scheveningen). He was killed in the last battle.

Wednesday, May 25, 2005

I had things wrong about Piet Hein and he Silverfleet

This is my translation of part of the Dutch entry in the Wikipedia about Witte de With. Witte de With was Piet Hein's flag captain during the Spanish silver fleet capture:
He was born in Den Briel, like Tromp, but one year. According to the legend they were in their youth either friends or already were enemies, but there is absolutely no proof for either. Tromp left Brielle at six. In 1616 De With was cabin boy (or "saloon boy"??) for Jan Pieterszoon Coen in India. In 1622 he was already flag captain. In 1625 he visited India for the second and last time as a Vice-Admiral (in the VOC) of the retourvloot. Afterwards he was for a time commander of the large fishery. De With fought during the eighty-year-old war against the Spaniards at the Admiralty of the Maze. In 1628 he became flag captain to Piet Hein in his attack on the silver fleet. In 1637 he was appointed as Vice-Admiral of the Netherlands and West-Friesland simultaneously with the appointment of Tromp as Lieutenant-Admiral. In that role he fought under at tromp in 1639 in the battle of the Downs. In 1645 he forced the Sound [with a large fleet of merchantships] against the Danes and enforced a favourable toll treaty.

English Captain: Henry Clarke

In 1665, Henry Clarke was lieutenant on the Dutch prize Young Prince. Later in 1665, he was lieutenant of the 4th Rate Hampshire. Frank Fox tells the story about how Henry Clarke, the Hampshire's lieutenant, arrived bringing word of Prince Rupert, and how he didn't know that the Four Days Battle was underway. In 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him as lieutenant on the 2nd Rate Henry. He then was appointed as captain of the John and Thomas. In 1669, he was captain of the Holmes. In 1662, he was appointed as captain of the 5th Rate Nightingale. Later in 1672, he became captain of the Yarmouth. Finally, in 1673, Prince Rupert appointed him as captain of the 3rd Rate York. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, May 24, 2005

The Dutch fleet dispatched to the Sound in 1658

The Dutch dispatched a moderate-sized fleet to the Sound to force transports through to relieve Copenhagen, which was besieged by Sweden. The fleet consisted of 35 warships, six fluits, four fireships, and 6 galliots. The fluits were loaded with troops, while some of the warships carried their usual complement of land soldiers. There is a somewhat different view of this list at KentishKnock.com.
  • The Van:
  1. Brederode (Vice-Admiral Witte de With), 220 sailors, 50 soldiers, 59 guns
  2. Landman (Capt. Evert Anthonissen) 130 sailors, 40 guns
  3. Zeeridder (Capt. Adriaen Banckert) 75 sailors, 25 soldiers, 22 guns
  4. Prinses Louise (Capt. Jacob Boshuysen) 120 sailors, 31 guns
  5. Kogge (Capt. Willem Jan Stoffelszoon) 13o sailors, 40 guns (hired merchantman)
  6. Windhond (Capt. Gilles Janszoon) 67 sailors, 25 soldiers, 23 guns
  7. Prins Willem (Capt. Jan Duym) 75 sailors, 25 soldiers, 28 guns
  8. Wapen van Medemblick (Capt. Adriaen Houttuijn) 124 sailors, 36 guns
  9. Maagd van Enkhuizen (Capt. Dirck Gerritszoon Pomp) 102 sailors, 27 guns
  10. Kasteel van Medemblick (Capt. Claes Corneliszoon Vale Hen) 95 sailors, 28 guns
  11. Groningen (Capt. Laurens Degelcamp), 120 sailors, 36 guns
  • The Center
  1. Eendracht (Lt.-Admiral Jacob Wassenaer van Obdam, Capt. Egbert Meeuwssen Cortenaer) 250 sailors, 75 soldiers, 72 guns
  2. Rotterdam (Schout-bij-Nacht Jan Arentszoon Verhaeff) 80 sailors, 20 soldiers, 34 guns
  3. Zon (Capt. Dirck Krijnen Verveen) 130 sailors, 40 guns
  4. Wapen van Rotterdam (Capt. Aert van Nes) 130 sailors, 30 soldiers, 40 guns
  5. Dordrecht (Capt. Jan de Liefde) 130 sailors, 30 soldiers, 40 guns
  6. Halve Maan (or Maan) (Capt. Jan van Campen) 130 sailors, 40 guns
  7. Duivenvoorde (Capt. Paulus Egbertszoon Souck) 130 sailors, 40 guns
  8. Stavoren (Capt. Joris Caullery) 150 sailors, 40 guns
  9. Deutecom (Capt. Abraham de Weerdenburgh) 74 sailors, 24 guns
  10. Waag (Capta. Sijbrandt Janszoon Mol) 130 sailors, 40 guns (hired merchantman)
  11. Goude Leeuw (Capt. Reynst Corneliszoon Sevenhuysen) 125 sailors, 38 guns
  12. Hoorn (Capt. Claes Aldertszoon) 100 sailors, 28 guns
  13. Prinses Albertina (Capt. Auke Stellingwerff) 120 sail0rs, 36 guns
  • The Rear
  1. Jozua (Vice-Admiral Pieter Florissen) 150 sailors, 50 guns
  2. Eendracht (Capt. Gerrit Femssen) 125 sailors, 38 guns
  3. Breda (Capt. Bruynsvelt) 95 sailors, 28 guns
  4. Caleb (Capt. Cornelis Slordt) 125 sailors, 40 guns
  5. Jupiter (Capt. Cornelis De Boer) 120 sailors, 32 guns
  6. Jonge Prins (Capt. Govert Corneliszoon 't Hoen) 110 sailors, 30 guns
  7. Alkmaar (Capt. Jan de Groot) 120 sailors, 36 guns
  8. Monnik (Capt. Claes Arentszoon Sloot) 105 sailors, 26 guns
  9. Westfriesland (Capt. Dirck Bogaart) 104 sailors, 28 guns
  10. Monnikendam (Capt. Jan Samplon) 105 sailors, 32 guns
  11. Hollandia (Capt. Backer) 125 sailors, 38 guns
  • Transports
  1. Judith
  2. Vergulden Haan
  3. Liefde
  4. Medea
  5. Perel
  6. Fruitboom
This is from G. L. Grove's book Journalen van de Admiralen Van Wassenaer-Obdam (1658/59) en De Ruyter (1659/60) (1907). I have made some corrections from what I consider to be better information. I have handwritten pages that give the soldiers carried by the transports, but I still have not had time to find them, but I will do that soon.

Monday, May 23, 2005

English Captain: Richard London

Richard London served in the Restoration navy. In 1665, he was a lieutenant on the 2nd Rate Old James. Later in 1665, he was lieutenant on the 1st Rate Royal James. He became lieutenant on the 3rd Rate Monmouth in 1667. In December 1668, he sat on a court martial for Captain Scott, Sir Thomas Allin's master, who was cashiered from the service. He was serving in Sir Thomas Allin's squadron that was operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Richard London spoke Spanish, so he was often used as an interpreter. In 1669, he was lieutenant on the Resolution. His first command was the 5th Rate Guernsey, to which he was appointed in 1670. In 1671, he was appointed to the 3rd Rate Montagu. In 1672, Prince Rupert appointed him to command the 5th Rate Norwich. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, The Journals of Sir Thomas Allin, Vol.II 1667-1678, 1940.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 22, 2005

English Captain: John Hubbard (who served starting in 1662)

There were two John Hubbards who served during pretty much the same period in the Restoration navy. Frank Fox calls him John Hubbert. This is about the John Hubbard who served from 1662 to at least 1670. In 1662, John Hubbard commanded the Royalist prize Greyhound. In 1664, he was appointed to command the Dutch prize Mathias. At the time of the Battle of Lowestoft, he was at Portsmouth. In 1666, he commanded first the 4th Rate Centurion and then the Leopard. At the start of the Four Days Battle, he was in the Centurion, which was in the Medway repairing. He arrived at the battle over the night of June 3-4. On 25 July 1666, he fought in the St. James's Day Battle, where he commanded the Leopard (60 guns). He was appointed to command the 2nd Rate Old James in 1668. Later in 1668, he was moved to the 2nd Rate Victory. In 1670, he was appointed to command the Falcon. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.

  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Saturday, May 21, 2005

The jacht Haij

I don't believe that I have written about this, before. From the "Staet van Oorlog te Water voor den Jaere 1654" there is an entry for the jacht Haij. The ship was 6 years old in 1654, so she was probably built in 1648. Vreugdenhil calls her the Haai. She is number 73 in his list. In 1654, her captain was Jan Janszoon Blom. The handwritten list I have only gives her length and hold, but Vreugdenhil has the complete dimensions: 68ft x 17.5ft x 10ft. I suspect that these are in Maas feet of 308mm, as the jacht belonged to the Admiralty of the Maas, and all older vessels were specified in Maas feet. It was only the newer ships built during the First Anglo-Dutch War that Rotterdam used Amsterdam feet for the dimensions. That makes her dimensions in Amsterdam feet 74ft x 19ft x 11ft. We know the details of her armament from the Staet as 6-4pdr and 4-steenstukken. Jan Glete says that these latter pieces were swivels. Despite their name, by the mid-17th Century, they didn't fire stone shot. Stone shot went out of use, generally, due to the cost!

Friday, May 20, 2005

The whole Maarten Tromp-WItte de With rivalry was unfortunate

Maarten Tromp and Witte de With were only about a year apart in age. Tromp was the year older of the two. I have had the good fortune to read a paper yesterday that summarized the life of Witte de With. Tromp was the more favored of the two, and he continued to receive the plum jobs, up until his untimely demise in 1653. Tromp was made Lieutenant-Admiral and was the fleet commander for the campaign leading up to the Battle of the Downs in 1639. The outcome was successful, so it added further to Tromp's fame. Witte de With's criticism of Tromp's performance in the battle may have been simply due to jealousy, although I'm not so sure that there couldn't have been some validity to it. Witte de With had the credibility that when difficult assignments came up, he was given the task to execute them. In 1645, he pushed a fleet of merchant ships into the Sound without paying the toll to the Danes. When Brazil needed rescue, but the Dutch were not willing to put the resources needed into the operation, Witte de With was sent. If Prins Willem II had not died, Witte de With might have been in trouble, but instead, he was rehabilitated in time for the First Anglo-Dutch War, where he performed credibly. Late in the war, he led the fleet to Norway and back in the winter, and survived a storm, with considerable damage. He had warned the authorities that the voyage was risky, due to weather, but he was despatched inspite of that. The most trusted naval leaders in late 1653 were Witte de With and Michiel De Ruyter. For political reasons, Jacob van Wassenaer van Obdam was put in charge instead. The situation was too politically charged.

Thursday, May 19, 2005

I repeated myself

I'm sorry to say that I repeated myself when I wrote about Carel van Putte. Andrew pointed out that I had written about him on 26 April 2005. I searched with Google and didn't see the listing, so I thought that I hadn't already written about Carel van Putte. I was wrong. Google let me down, in this case.

Dutch Naval Officer: Carel van de Putte

Carel van de Putte was born in Vlissingen on 11 January 1634 and died at Vlissingen on 17 April 1695. He commanded in the voyage of Prins William III to England in 1688. He fought in the Battle of Beachy Head in 1690 and in the Battles of Cape La Hougue 1n 1692 and Camaret in 1694. He served the Admiralty of Zeeland. He was appointed as an extraordinary captain-at-sea on 23 August 1666. In 1672, he was promoted to captain-at-sea. On 20 September 1679, he was appointed as a Schout-bij-Nacht. By 1 April 1684, he became a Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the piece in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

We also know more about the ships he commanded:

  • 1672: Ter Goes, 34 guns built 1652
  • 1673: Domburg, 60 guns built about 1671
  • 1674: Vlissingen, 50 guns built 1653
  • 1688: Gekroonde Burg, 60 guns built 1682
This is from my unpublished manuscript: "Dutch Ships: 1620-1700" (2004)

Wednesday, May 18, 2005

English Capain: Napthali Ball (Updated)

Napthali Ball served in the Restoration navy. At the Battle of Lowestoft, he commanded the fireship Bramble, which he had been appointed to command earlier in 1665. He attacked the Dutch 60-gun warship Hilversum. While the Hilversum's crew fought the fire, other English ships came up and captured the Hilversum. He was assigned to the Duke of York's divsion in the battle. William Laird Clowes says that he commanded the Success later in 1665 and was one of those captains who succeeded in taking prizes of "Dutch merchantmen and privateers". In June 1666, he commanded the 5th Rate Success, and was engaged in a mission on the Western Station with the Milford (and missed the Four Days Battle). On 25 July 1666, he was cruising in the Channel, and also missed the St. James's Day Battle. In 1667, he was appointed to command the Roe ketch. Later in 1667, he commanded the 4th Rate Assistance. In 1672, he was appointed to command the Richmond.By August 1672, he commanded the Greenwich (60 guns). He was assigned to Sir John Kempthorne's division. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. William Laird Clowes, The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present, Vol.II, 1898.
  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Tuesday, May 17, 2005

Jan Evertsz. de Liefde

I am ready to confirm that Jan Evertszoon de Liefde's ship during the First Anglo-Dutch War was in fact the Rotterdam Director's ship Jonas. Mr. Stapel pointed out to me that in the Rotterdamse Historiebladen for 1880, on page 472 the writer J Scheffer states: "I've studied the records in the Archives of the city of Rotterdam and found that late 1652 Jan Evertsz. de Liefde commanded a direction [Directors'] ship of the Maze Rotterdam called Jonas". Carl Ballhausen wrote this in his book, but I had only reluctantly incorporated that into my list. I had found that Dr. Ballhausen could be correct, or not, and that you needed to confirm before accepting what he wrote. The Jonas carried 36 guns and had a crew of 125 men, according to list published in the 1652 edition of the Hollandsche Mercurius.

Monday, May 16, 2005

English Captain: John Shelley

John Shelley served in the Restoration navy and beyond. He was appointed lieutenant of the 4th Rate Assistance in 1664. He was promoted to captain of the fireship Albemarle in 1667. In 1668, he was appointed to command the Truelove. In 1669, he was moved to the Dutch prize Welcome. In 1670, he commanded the 5th Rate Milford. In 1672, he was First Lieutenant of the 1st Rate London (100 guns) and fought at the Battle of Solebay. Later in 1672, he became 2nd Captain of the 3rd Rate Monmouth. Later still in 1672, he was appointed as captain of the 4th Rate Portland. In 1673, he commanded the 4th Rate Diamond. On 12 April 1678, Pepys wrote that he was appointed as captain of the hired ship Europa (not the Dutch prize from 1673?). On 12 September 1688, he was appointed as captain of the fireship Cygnet. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 15, 2005

One of the manuscripts that Rick van Velden found for me was the list in The First Dutch War, Vol.I

Thanks to Rick van Velden, I have a copy of the original handwritten list that was first published in the Hollandsche Mercurius for 1652 and then in Vol.I of The First Dutch War. The handwritten document only lists captains and not crew or number of guns. Those details were probably filled in by consulting Hendrick de Raedt's pamphlet which is in the Prins Hendrick Museum in Rotterdam. I will be curious to check the handwriting for Jan Maijkers, as in the Hollandsche Mercurius, it was changed to Jan Deyckers. I only knew that it was wrong when I received the first of the Director's ship documents in early 2003. Clearly the captain's name was Jan Maijkers (or Maykers). I found him and the handwriting was correct. Apparently the mangling of his name happened in the process of preparing the text for the Hollandsche Mercurius. The date of the list appears to be 24 July 1652.

Saturday, May 14, 2005

You probably don't know that Jan Olivierszoon fought in the First Anglo-Dutch War

Jan Olivierszoon fought in the First Anglo-Dutch War. His ship was hired by the Veere Directors. He ship was armed with 38 guns and had a crew of 125 men. The name of his ship was the Wapen van der Vere, and her dimensions were 123-1/2ft x 28ft x 12ft. The ship seems to have been hired in March 1652. During the summer, he was with the fleet on the voyage to the Shetlands, where the fleet was dispersed by a storm. He seems to have missed the Battle of the Kentish Knock. We do know that he was assigned to Cornelis Evertsen's squadron at the Battle of Dungeness. We also know that he fought in the Battle of Portland as he was part of a group of 17 Zeeland ships that returned home after the battle with Jan Evertsen. He joined the fleet on 3 May 1653, probably as part of Michiel de Ruyter's squadron. He almost certainly fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, although I haven't been able to definitely confirm that. He definitely fought in the Battle of Scheveningen where he was assigned to De Ruyter's division.

This is major: I just found the page about the "Wapen van der Vere"

I found the letter about the Wapen van der Vere in the papers from the Zeeuws Archief. I have difficulty in reading then handwriting, but what I can read says that the Wapen van der Vere was armed with 38 guns. The length was 123-1/2ft, the beam was 28ft, and the depth in the hold was 12ft. Several pages later, Captain Jan Olivierszoon is mentioned. He is who I believe commanded the Wapen van der Vere, as his ship definitely carried 38 guns. If anyone has expertise in reading handwritten Dutch from the 17th Century, I would either send you a scanned image, or by mail, send a photocopy. I would just hope to have a report on what you found.

I am going to make time to study the papers from the Zeeuws Archief and the Nationaal Archief

I still have not picked back up the papers that I had received from the Zeeuws Archief and the Nationaal Archief. Rick van Velden had done three hours of research for me, but had not been able to find any sign of a "Staet van Oorlog te Water" for 1648. He did find some of the other documents that I had found metioned in Dr. Elias's book Schetsen uit de Geschiedenis van ons Zeewzen. I had understood (or misunderstood) that the Zeeuws Archief material included a letter about the fitting out of the Veere Directors' ship Wapen van der Vere. In scanning the materials, I never saw that, or anything else that was of obvious interest.

Friday, May 13, 2005

English Captain and Admiral: Sir Ralph Delavall

Sir Ralph Delavall served in the Restoration navy and into the reign of William III and Mary II. During 1666, he was lieutenant of the 3rd Rate Henrietta and then the 3rd Rate Cambridge. In 1668, he was lieutenant of the 4th Rate Tiger. In 1670, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 4th Rate Adventure. At the beginning of the third war, in 1672, he was lieutenant of the 4th Rate Advice. In 1673, he was appointed as captain of the 5th Rate Eagle. Then on 9 April 1677, the King appointed him as commander of the 4th Rate Constant Warwick. Finally, not long before the Glorious Revolution, he was appointed captain of the 3rd Rate York (on 1 October 1688) by King James II. This is from Pepys's papers in "Tanner".

Andrew found additional information about Sir Ralph Delavall. In 1688, he commanded the 3rd Rate York. In 1690, he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue. He was knighted in 1690. At the Battle of Beachy Head, he commanded the Rear. He served as president of the court martial that acquitted Lord Torrington of any wrongdoing during the Battle of Beachy Head. In 1692, he was was Vice-Admiral at the Battle of Barfleur. He was removed in 1693, as he was a Jacobite. From 1695 to 1698, he was member of parliament for Great Bedwin. Thanks to Andrew for the good information.

Thursday, May 12, 2005

Dutch Naval Officer: Reinier Claessen

Reinier Claessen was born either in 1560 or 1665. He was killed in action at Cape St. Vincent on 7 October 1606. He was killed in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent when he exploded his ship when he was being overcome by the Spanish. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam, and in 1588 he was promoted to captain. On 30 December 1605, he was promoted to Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the short entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. I was familiar with his name, as I remember it being the name of a small coast defense vessel.

Wednesday, May 11, 2005

An unfortunate Anglo-Dutch Wars website

I looked at this website with a page about the Anglo-Dutch Wars. I immediately was struck by how wrong the dates were. I hate to think about the accuracy of the other information. I hope it is better. For the preparer of this website, they might want to know the correct dates for the first three wars:
  1. The First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654)
  2. The Second Anglo-DutchWar (1664-1667)
  3. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674)
They might take time to read the Contemplator.com's page about the Anglo-Dutch Wars. They might learn something.

The Privateers and Pirates site says "Harman Kleuter", but the correct name seems to be Hendrick Cleuter

Luc Eekhout doesn't list "Harman van Kleuter" in his list, but he does list Hendrick Dirckszoon Cleuter. The Privateers and Pirates site mentions a Harman van Kleuter in a piece about the privateer Jan Jacobszoon. Hendrick Cleuter was born in Amsterdam and died about 1631. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam and was appointed as a captain in 1614. He was a Schout-bij-Nacht in 1627. This is from my translation of a very short entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. I know a bit more about Hendrick Cleuter. In 1629, he commanded the 28-gun ship Haarlem. The Haarlem's crew was variously listed as 90 or 95 men. She was a vessel of 225 lasts. Her list of guns was: 2-24pdr, 4-18pdr, 16-12pdr, 6-5pdr and 7-steenstukken with 14 chambers. I have not included the steenstukken in the gun count, as Jan Glete says that they were swivels. These details are from the "Staet van Oorlogh te Water" for 1629.

I noticed a page about the Anglo-Dutch Wars that gives a summary

I noticed a page that is new to me that gives a summary of the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars: "The Contemplator's Short History of the Anglo-Dutch Wars" (from the Marianas Trench, at the Contemplator).

Tuesday, May 10, 2005

Dutch Naval Officer: Jacob van Heemskerck

Jacob van Heemskerck was born in Amsterdam on 13 March 1567. He died at Gibraltar on 25 April 1607. He was captain on two of Willem Barentszoon's voyages to the North in 1594 and 1596 to 1597. He also sailed on an exploration voyage to the East Indies. He commanded an expedition to Spain and was killed in the Battle of Gibraltar when a cannonball hit his left leg. On 18 January 1607, he was appointed as a temporary Vice-Admiral. This is from my translation of the short piece in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

Monday, May 09, 2005

Dutch Naval Officer: Adriaan Banckert

Adriaan Banckert was born in Vlissingen in 1620 and died in Middelburg on 22 April 1684. He was a schipper in 1639. He commanded in the Battle of Lowestoft in 1665. He fought in the Four Days Battle and the St. James's Day Battle in 1666. He fought in the Battle of Solebay in 1672, the two Schooneveld battles and the Battle of the Texel (Kijkduin) in 1673. He was on the council of the Admiralty of Zeeland from 1678 until 1684. He served in the Admiralty of Zeeland, and was appointed captain in 1642, when he was quite young. On 16 December 1664, he was promoted to Schout-bij-Nacht. After that, until May 1665, he was a temporary Vice-Admiral. On 15 July 1665, he was promoted to Vice-Admiral. On 5 September 1666, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Admiral. He left the service on 3 December 1674. This is from my translation of the piece in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek.

Sunday, May 08, 2005

Dutch Naval Offficer: Pieter van Brakel

Pieter van Brakel either born in Rotterdam or Amsterdam in 1624. He was killed near Cadiz on 29 December 1664. He commanded in the invasion of Nyborg in 1659. He was killed in the defense of a merchantlfeet from Smyrna against an English squadron. He served the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He was appointed as an extraordinary captain on 25 November 1644. On 1 April 1647, he was promoted to captain. From 20 May 1659 until 1 September 1660, he served as a temporary Schout-bij-Nacht. This is from my translation of the piece in Luc Eekhout's book Het Admiralenboek. As usual, we know more about Pieter van Brakel than is found in Eekhout's book. From 1652 until 1653, he commanded the Bommel (30 guns). In 1664, he commanded the new Stad en Lande (48 guns). From 1658 until 1659, he commanded the Huis te Kruiningen (54 guns).

Saturday, May 07, 2005

Dutch Captain: Abraham Crijnssen

Abraham Crijnssen served the Admiralty of Zeeland. He was born in either Vlissingen or Zierikzee. He died at Paramaribo, in Suriname, on 1 February 1669. He commanded in the Four Days' Battle and the St. James's Day Battle in 1666. He lead the expedition to capture Suriname and fought in the Battle of Nevis in 1667. He died during an expedition to Suriname. He was appointed as a captain in 1665. He may have been appointed as a temporary Schout-bij-Nacht in 1669. This is from my translation of the entry in Luc Eekhout's Het Admiralenboek. We also know that in 1666 and 1667, he commanded the frigate Zeelandia (34 guns). The Zeelandia had been completed in 1664.

Friday, May 06, 2005

English Captain: another Thomas Foulis (served from 1666 until 1673)

Thomas Foulis served in the Restoration navy. In 1666, he was lieutenant of the Golden Phoenix. Later in 1666, he became captain of that ship. In 1667, he was appointed as captain of the Wood Merchant, a fireship. Later in 1667, he was appointed as lieutenant of the Revenge. In 1668, he was appointed to command the Roe ketch. In 1669, he commanded the Running prize. In 1671, he was appointed to command the Holmes. In 1672, he commanded first the Diamond and then the Anne. He commanded the Diamond (48 guns) at the Battle of Solebay. In 1673, he was appointed to command first the Assistance and then the Princess. Later in 1673, he was appointed to the Lion. He was killed in action on 28 May 1673, at the First Schooneveld battle, while commanding the Lion. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.

  2. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.

  3. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Thursday, May 05, 2005

My first sailing ship photo: a Dutch warship (the Brederode?)

I am not sure how closely this follows the Brederode, but it has some of that flavor (that is how I named the photoart piece):

English Captain: Sir William Jennens (or Jennings)

Sir William Jennens served in the Restoration navy. In 1688, he went over to King James II's side. In 1661, he was lieutenant on the Adventure. In 1664, he was lieutenant on the Gloucester and Portland. On 11 October 1664, he was appointed as captain of the Ruby. In 1666, he commanded the Sapphire. Later in 1666, Prince Rupert and the Duke of Albemarle appointed him to command the Lion. In 1670, he commanded the Princess. In 1673, he commanded the Victory. Later in 1673, Prince Rupert appointed him to command the Gloucester. After the Battle of the Texel, he was put in charge of a detachment of five ships sent home. Sir William Jennings was wounded in the battle. On 26 March 1678, the King appointed him to command the 2nd Rate French Ruby. On 30 November 1678, the King appointed him to command the Royal James, which was guardship at Portsmouth. The King appointed him to command the Jersey on 18 July 1686. On 15 September 1688, the King appointed him to command the Rupert. Later in 1688, the Lord Dartmouth appointed him to command the Warspite. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Wednesday, May 04, 2005

English Captain: Robert Knox

R. C. Anderson only lists Robert Knox as captain of the Charles (32 guns) in 1653. Andrew says that he was the captain of the Charles (of London) from 1650 to 1653. In any case, Robert Knox fought at the Battle of Portland in early 1653. In this battle, the Charles is listed as carrying 33 guns. We also know that he was ordered to the Downs on 20 May 1652 after the encounter between the fleets. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.
  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.
  3. Dr. S.R. Gardiner, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.I, 1898.

Tuesday, May 03, 2005

English Captain: John Bowrey (or Bowry)

John Bowrey (Bowry) served in both the Commonwealth and Restoration navies. In 1653, he commanded the Hunter fireship. While the captain was not named, he probably fought in the Battle of the Gabbard, where the Hunter was assigned to John Lawson's division. The Hunter was definitely sunk at the Battle of Scheveningen. There is a passage in The First Dutch War that confirms that was the case. In 1655, he commanded the Eaglett ketch.From 1656 to 1660, he commanded the 6th Rate Drake. After the Restoration, he was continued in command of the Drake. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  2. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

  3. C.T. Atkinson, Ed., The First Dutch War, Vol.V, 1912.

  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

English Captain: William Bustow

Apparently, Bustow is the correct spelling for William Bustow's last name. In 1664, he was lieutenant on the Unicorn. In 1666, he was captain of the fireship Young Prince. He successfully attacked and burnt Pieter Salomonszoon's ship the Liefde at the Four Days Battle. In 1667, he commanded the frigate Francis. In 1673, he commanded the Mary yacht. He was drowned in 1675, according to Pepys. Sources:
  1. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  2. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Monday, May 02, 2005

English Captain: Robert Werden

Andrew called him Robert Worden, but Pepys and R. C. Anderson called him Robert Werden, so I will, as well. That seems to be the correct spelling. Robert Werden served in the Restoration navy. In 1663, he was appointed as lieutenant of the 4th Rate Advice. In 1665, he was appointed as lieutenant of the Plymouth. Later in 1665, he was appointed as captain of the Dutch prize Slotheny (ex-Sloot Honingen). In 1666, he was appointed as captain of the 5th Rate Norwich. In 1669, he was captain of the hired ship William. In 1670, he became captain of the Falcon, a former 5th Rate upgraded to 4th Rate. In 1672, he commanded the Yarmouth (52 guns). He fought in the Battle of Solebay, where he was assigned to the Duke of York's division. In August 1672, he was with the fleet, assigned to John Narborough's division. In 1673, he commanded the 3rd Rate Henrietta. He fought in the first Schooneveld battle, where he was fatally wounded on 28 May 1673. Another valid spelling of his last name was Woerden, which looks rather Dutch. I can understand calling his last name Worden. He was on the North Station at the time of the Four Days' Battle. Frank Fox calls him "Robert Warden". On 25 July 1666, he and the Norwich were in the Thames area, in need of crew. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, Journals and Narratives of the Third Dutch War, 1946.
  2. Julian S. Corbett, “A Note on the Drawings in the Possession of The Earl of Dartmouth Illustrating The Battle of Solebay May 28, 1672 and The Battle of the Texel August 11, 1673”, 1908.
  3. Frank Fox, A Distant Storm: the Four Days' Battle of 1666, 1996.
  4. J.R. Tanner, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, Vol.I, 1903.

Sunday, May 01, 2005

English Captain: Thomas Wilkes

Thomas Wilkes served in the Commonwealth navy. From 1651 to 1652, he commanded the Elizabeth prize, an 8-gun 6th Rate. In 1653, he commanded the 5th Rate Swan (22 guns). He arrived at the Battle of the Gabbard on the second day with Robert Blake. From 1654 to 1655, he commanded the purchased 5th Rate Discovery (20 guns). From 1655 to 1660, he commanded the Portuguese prize Convertine. At the time of the Battle of Scheveningen, he was elsewhere, employed on convoy duty. Sources:
  1. R. C. Anderson, "English Fleet-Lists in the First Dutch War," The Mariner's Mirror, Vol.XXIV No.4, October 1938.

  2. R. C. Anderson, List of English Naval Captains 1642-1660, 1964.

  3. R. C. Anderson, Lists of Men-of-War 1650-1700: Part I English Ships 1649-1702, 1966.

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